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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Chine → 2020 → Effects of Adding Organic Matter to Farmland on Soil Characteristics and Rhizosphere Process of Efficient Utilization of Nitrogen in Cotton in Arid Areas

Université de Shihezi (2020)

Effects of Adding Organic Matter to Farmland on Soil Characteristics and Rhizosphere Process of Efficient Utilization of Nitrogen in Cotton in Arid Areas

张国娟;

Titre : Effects of Adding Organic Matter to Farmland on Soil Characteristics and Rhizosphere Process of Efficient Utilization of Nitrogen in Cotton in Arid Areas

Auteur : 张国娟;

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2020

Université : Université de Shihezi

Résumé partiel
Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in arid areas have been always at a low level.Stalk residue retention as one of the important measures to increase carbon and nitrogen input which has been attracted researches extensive attention.With the adjustment of the agricultural industrial structure and the rapid development of animal husbandry,animal manure has been widely used by cotton farmers as an organic fertilizer.Animal manure and straw residue retention are relatively abundant fertilizer resources in arid regions,and the application of organic manure and residue retention have gradually been becoming the main way to improve the yield and economic benefit of cotton.Aiming at the problems of large amount of nitrogen fertilizer input and low fertilizer utilization rate under drip irrigation,one field experiment was conducted which use a split-plot design included two main plot treatments(stalk residue removal and stalk residue retention)and four subplot fertilizer treatments(no fertilizer,nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P),and potassium(K)fertilizer,poultry manure,and NPK plus poultry manure).In this paper,we discussed the effects of nitrogen fertilizer input amount and agricultural management measures on soil N conversion and soil characteristics in cotton fields in the arid area,as well as cotton rhizosphere processes,N uptake,and changes in organic carbon pools under high-efficiency nitrogen utilization.The main results of this research are listed as below:1.The results showed that stalk residue retention increased soil pH whereas fertilization reduced it.Stalk residue retention and fertilizer application both increased organic carbon,total nitrogen,and microbial biomass carbon.The NPK plus poultry manure treatment had the highest nitrate and available nitrogen contents.Stalk residue retention plus fertilization had positive rhizospheric effect on soil organic carbon and nitrate nitrogen,negative rhizospheric effect on total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen,and no net rhizospheric effect on soil pH and microbial biomass carbon.Stalk residue retention improved soil quality and increased soil organic carbon and available nitrogen.Stalk residue retention plus NPK fertilizer and poultry manure can significantly increase soil organic carbon and active carbon components,thus ensuring high productivity.2.The results showed that stalk residue retention can increase soil net mineralization,net nitrifation,gross nitrication,denitrification,nitrate nitrogen,ammonium nitrogen and absorbable inorganic nitrogen content.The NPK plus poultry manure has the largest soil net mineralization,net nitrifation,gross nitrication,denitrification,nitrate nitrogen and absorbable inorganic nitrogen content.Application of stalk residue retention combined application of NPK fertilizer and chicken manure were been helpful to accelerate the transformation of soil nutrient,improve efficiency of fertilizer and then increase the effective content of nutrient in arid areas.3.The results showed that with the measures of stalk residue retention,the NPK plus poultry manure has the largest urease and invertase activity.Stalk residue retention,chemicalfertilizer mixed manure significantly improved the utilization ability of carbon source meanwhile increased the diversity of microorganism after comparing the comprehensive work of different management.The capability of using different carbon sources of microorganism was variant,carbohydrates,amino acids and polymers were mainly utilized under the treatment of chemical fertilizer plus organic fertilizer followed by the treatment of chemical fertilizer.4.The results showed that stalk residue retention had no effect on root mean diameter,root tissue mass density,specific root length,or root specific surface area.Fertilization increased root tissue mass density and root specific surface area while decreased specific root length,while root mean diameter was not affected by fertilization treatment.Stalk residue retention had no significant effect on root vigor and glutamine synthetase,and fertilization increased root vigor and root glutamine synthetase activity

Mots clés : Cotton; Stalk residue retention; Fertilizer; Root; Rhizosphere effect; Organic carbon; Nitrogen transformation; Soil microorganisms;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 22 octobre 2020