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Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz (2020)

Climate Change and Droughts : Effects on Migration within Africa

Achberger, Carolin-Anna

Titre : Climate Change and Droughts : Effects on Migration within Africa

Auteur : Achberger, Carolin-Anna

Université de soutenance : Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz,

Grade : Master of Arts in Global Studies 2020

Résumé
Climate change and migration are at the top of the global political agenda. Still, the nexus between the two is only slowly emerging as an issue of concern. Rising sea levels, increasing temperatures, altered precipitation patterns and extreme weather events, such as droughts, impact livelihood security across the globe. Africa is a hotspot of climate change. Drought frequently affects large parts of the population, poses major barriers to sustainable development and alters human migration. Based on quantitative analysis, this thesis aims to discern a relationship between drought and migration within Africa.Drought analyses based on the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index indicate that extremely dry conditions prevailed over most parts of Africa during the latter decades of the 20th century. Significant climatic drying trends in the period between 1980 and 2015 are observed over large parts of northern Africa, while a slight amelioration of the climate towards the end of the study period is detected in eastern and southwestern Africa. Analyses of drought and migration-related variables for 35 African countries and their 486 first-level administrative divisions between 2001 and 2015 reveal that the relationship between drought and migration is far from simple and direct. Drought can increase mobility, especially short-distance and temporary migration, but it can also decrease mobility or even lead to immobility by eradicating necessary resources. Case study analyses reveal that environmental migration is context specific. Migration is but one strategy employed to adapt to climate change and drought. High rates of migration are largely attributed to conflict and economic incentives, rather than environmental conditions.This thesis provides evidence that migration is a dynamic phenomenon that is shaped by economic, political, social, demographic and environmental factors. Climate change and drought interact with these drivers to cause migration. Présentation

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Page publiée le 29 décembre 2020