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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (2008)

Efeitos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e do enriquecimento por nutrientes sobre a comunidade planctônica em um lago artificial no semi-árido brasileiro

Menezes Rosemberg Fernandes de

Titre : Efeitos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e do enriquecimento por nutrientes sobre a comunidade planctônica em um lago artificial no semi-árido brasileiro

Auteur : Menezes Rosemberg Fernandes de

Université de soutenance  : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Grade  : Mestrado em Bioecologia Aquática 2008

Résumé
The major aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the introduction of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the enrichment with nutrients (N and P) interact synergistically to change the structure of plankton communities, increase phytoplankton biomass and decrease water transparency of a semi-arid tropical reservoir. One field experiment was performed during five weeks in twenty enclosures (8m3) to where four treatments were randomly allocated : with tilapia addition (T), with nutrients addition (NP), with tilapia and nutrients addition (T+NP) and a control treatment with no tilapia or nutrients addition (C). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was done to test for time (t), tilapia (T) and nutrient (NP) effects and their interaction on water transparency, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The results show that there was no effect of nutrient addition on these variables but significant fish effects on the biomass of total zooplankton, nauplii, rotifers, cladocerans and calanoid copepods, on the biovolume of Bacillariophyta, Zygnemaphyceae and large algae (GALD ≥ 50 μm) and on Secchi depth. In addition, we found significant interaction effects between tilapia and nutrients on Secchi depth and rotifers. Overall, tilapia decreased the biomass of most zooplankton taxa and large algae (diatoms) and decreased the water transparency while nutrient enrichment increased the biomass of zooplankton (rotifers) but only in the absence of tilapia. In conclusion, the influence of fish on the reservoir plankton community and water transparency was greater than that of nutrient loading. This finding suggests that biomanipulation should be a greater priority in the restoration of eutrophic reservoirs in tropical semi-arid regions

Mots Clés : Enriquecimento por nutrientes, Onivoria, Mesocosmos, Oreochromis niloticus, Cascatas tróficas, Nutrient enrichment, Omnivory, Mesocosms, Trophic cascades

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