Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → Brésil → Impacts on the soil chemical characteristics and development of amaranth under saline stress and mulch / Impactos do estresse salino e da cobertura morta nas características químicas do solo e no desenvolvimento do amaranto

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Brazil (2007)

Impacts on the soil chemical characteristics and development of amaranth under saline stress and mulch / Impactos do estresse salino e da cobertura morta nas características químicas do solo e no desenvolvimento do amaranto

Costa, Djeson Mateus Alves da

Titre : Impactos do estresse salino e da cobertura morta nas características químicas do solo e no desenvolvimento do amaranto

Impacts on the soil chemical characteristics and development of amaranth under saline stress and mulch

Auteur : Costa, Djeson Mateus Alves da

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Grade : Doutorado em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais 2007

Résumé
Availability of good quality water has been reduced vertiginously, over the last decade, in the world. In some regions, the water resources have high concentration of the dissolved salts, these characteristics of the water make it s use impossible. Water quality can be a limitation for irrigated agriculture, principally in regions of arid or semiarid climate where the water resources are generally saline and are exposed at high evaporation ratio. For that reason, precipitation of the salts occurs near the soil surface and those salts themselves cumulate in the vegetal tissue, reducing the soil fertility and crop production. The adoption of tolerant crop to the water salinity and soil salinity, adaptable to the climatic conditions is other emergent necessity. This work had the goal of studying the effects of four salinity levels of the irrigation water salinity and use of mulch, dried leaves of Forest mangrove (Acacia mangiumWilld), in cultivated soil with amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus, BRS Alegria variety), in greenhouse. It was utilized the transplant of plants to PVC columns, containing 30 kg of silty loam soil, 10 days after emerging, with space of 50 x 50 cm between lines. Treatments were composed by combination of four levels of salinity (0.147 ; 1.500 ; 3.000 e 4.500 dS m-1), obtained by addition NaCl (commercial) to irrigation water and soil with and without protection, by mulch. A factorial system 4 x 2 was used with four repetitions, totalizing 32 parcels. The concentrations of nutrients in soil solution have been evaluated, in the dry matter of the vegetal tissue (roots, stem, leaves and raceme residue), at the end of the vegetative cycle. The use of soil protection reduced time for the beginning inflorescence of plants, at the same time, the increase of the salinity delayed this phase of amaranth development. The use of the mulch effectively increased the height, stem diameter, area of the larger leaf, humidity and dry matter content and amaranth grain production. The vegetal species showed salinity tolerance to experimented levels. The adopted treatments did not affect the pH values, exchangeable cation contents, electrical conductivity of soil solution (EC1:5) and saturated extract (ECSE), and Ca+2, Mg+, Fe+2 and Mn+2 contents, in the soil solution. The increase of the salinity concentration in the irrigation water inhibited the mineralization process of the organic matter (OM) and, consequently, the efficiency in the it´s utilization by plants, at the same time, produced increase in the values of the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and potassium adsorption ratio (PAR), in the soil solution. Therefore, the use of the mulch did not affect the first three parameters. The protein and nutrient contents : K+, Ca+2, P, Mg+2 e Cu+2, in amaranth grains, were improved by tillage condition. The raceme residues showed chemical/nutritional composition that makes advantageous its application in animal ration. In this context, it follows that amaranth tolerate the saline stress, of the irrigation water, until 4.500 dS m-1, temperature and relative humidity of the air predominant in the experimental environment

Présentation

Version intégrale (1,59 Mb)

Page publiée le 4 avril 2010, mise à jour le 5 juillet 2017