Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → Brésil → Respostas fisiológicas do umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda) aos estresses hídrico e salino

Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (2008)

Respostas fisiológicas do umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda) aos estresses hídrico e salino

Silva Elizamar Ciríaco da

Titre : Respostas fisiológicas do umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda) aos estresses hídrico e salino

Auteur : Elizamar Ciríaco da Silva

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco

Grade : Doutor em Botanica 2008

Contexte
Among the principal native fruit trees in Northeastern Brazil, especially those found in the semi-arid areas, the umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arruda) represents itself as an important alternative as it well accepted by consumers and is a good produce in dry environments.Thus, the fruit trade fair or through cooperatives provides a source of supplementary income for small farmers. However, this income can be compromised by harvesting and excessive deforestation, which has intensified each year. Concern with population reduction of this species and by anthropic, Brazilian Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropic has developed studies on seedlings production, cultivation, and genetic inheritance preservation recovering genotypes with distinct morphological characteristics and deployment of a germplasm active bank provide the most promising for small producers, in addition to contributing to the reforestation of the Caatinga with a native species. Of the climatic factors limiting fruit species production in the semi-arid northeast, drought is the main factor, also allied to the growing problem of soil salinization, which has worsened each year. The mechanisms used by umbu tree to tolerate drought is not well elucidated and the physiological response before soil salinity is not yet known. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of umbu tree to drought and salt stresses. To evaluate drought responses, a project was developed in green house conditions using four grafted genotypes classified as giantumbu (BGU 44, BGU 48, BGU 50 and BGU 68) in order to evaluate the alterations on stomatal behavior, anatomical parameters, water relations and some biochemical aspects induced by intermittent drought and the possible genotypical variations. Transpiration (E) and diffusive resistance (rs) were measured daily after the beginning of the stress treatments by withholding water. When plants presented stomatal closure, the vases were re-watered and the water withhold again. This cycle was repeated for a 31 period days. The leaf water potential (Yw) was measured in four-hour intervals during a 24-hour period at the moment of the first stomatal closure and at the end of the experimental period. Total soluble carbohydrates (CHS), free amino acids (AA), protein (PROT) and proline (PRO) in leaves and roots were also measured. Certain regularity in the stomatal closure was observed among the watering period, showing differences between the species. The correlation with environmental factors suggest that, besides the water, stomatal behavior of BGU 44 and BGU 68 were influenced by Tar, RH and VPD, while the access BGU 50 were influenced by PAR and BGU 48 had no correlation with these environmental factors, suggesting that the water exerted the major influence in this genotype. Anatomical alterations in response to drought on stomatal density (DE) and reductions on stomatal index (IE) and stomatal aperture size (AO) were observed.The access BGU 48 maintained its anatomical features unaltered. There was an inversion in tissue proportion in BGU 44 under stress conditions, reducing the thickness of the spongy parenchyma and increasing palisade parenchyma. The inverse occurred with BGU 68 and theremaining genotypes continued unchanged. The lower Yw time of most of the genotypes was between 8h and 12h. The Yw of the stressed plants of BGU 44 and BGU 50 reduced significantly at 8h. The highest Yw was observed to BGU 68. The stress prolongation induced reductions in CHS content in the leaves of all genotypes. There were increases in the leaves to AA in BGUs 44 and 48, while BGUs 50 and 68 were reduced by about 40% and 43% respectively. BGU 44 and BGU 50 kept this behavior at the end of the experimental period.Significant differences in PROT content were not observed, but there were increases of 50% in PRO, except to BGU 50. Alterations on CHS, AA and PRO contents in the roots were verified and varied among the different genotypes. BGU 68 and BGU 50 were the most contrasting genotypes. In order to evaluate the salt stress responses in umbu plants a project was developed using seedlings propagated by seeds. Plants were grown in washed sand with Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution without salt and with 25, 50, 75 and 100mM NaCl. Growth, Yw, E and rs were then evaluated. Na+, K+, Cl-, soluble carbohydrates and free amino acid contents were measured in several plant organs. Most variables were affected with salinity above 50 mM NaCl showing decreases in : number of leaves, plant height, stems diameter and dry masses and increases in root to shoot ratio. Reductions in pre-dawn leafwater potential (Ypd) were observed in plants submitted to 75 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt levels applied increased Na+ and Cl- contents in leaves. However, K+ content was not affected. A saturation to retain Na+ and Cl- in stems and roots was verified in treatments above 50 mM NaCl. These results allow us to say that there are physiological and anatomical differences among umbu tree genotypes ; genotypes respond differently to intermittent drought ; the turgor maintenance in umbu tree is relative to water storage in the xylopodium associated with the efficient stomatal closure mechanism and not by osmotic active solutes accumulation in either drought or salt stress conditions ; due to the great variation found, the organic solutes accumulations did not demonstrate to be a good physiological trait as indicator to droughtand salt-tolerance in umbu plants. This specie tolerates salt levels until 50 mM NaCl withoutshowing significant physio-morphological alterations.

Mots clés  : Transpiração ; Resistência estomática ; Potencial hídrico foliar ; Solutos compatíveis ; Seca ; Salinidade ; BOTANICA ; Umbu ; Transpiration ; Stomatal resistance ; Leaf water potential ; Compatible solutes ; Drought ; Salinity

Présentation (RCAAP)

Version intégrale

Page publiée le 4 avril 2010, mise à jour le 10 juillet 2017