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Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (2018)

Innovación, agua y medios de vida : Discursos de cambio en pobladores de San Andrés de Tupicocha, Lima Perú

Gómez de la Torre Barúa, Juan Andrés

Titre : Innovación, agua y medios de vida : Discursos de cambio en pobladores de San Andrés de Tupicocha, Lima Perú

Auteur : Gómez de la Torre Barúa, Juan Andrés

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina


Water scarcity in Peru is among one of the most serious problems for human development (ENAHO, 2013). Factors such as the limited availability of water within ecological regions, the distribution of the population in the national territory, climatic effects and national policies on managing resources, also influence its scarcity. Lima, the most populated city in the country, with approximately 9 million inhabitants (9,904,727, according to the INEI, of January 15, 2016), is located in a desert strip. Near Lima —approximately 4 hours away— is the Campesino Community of San Andrés de Tupicocha. There are a little more than 1400 people (INEI, 2007). Its territory oscillates between several altitudinal floors, from 500 to 4800 meters above sea level (Sifuentes de la Cruz, 1997). It is located in one of the regions with the greatest water scarcity in the Peruvian highlands (García, 2011). This thesis presents a study on perceived changes in livelihoods from the population of Tupicocha ; these changes, as observed, have a starting point with the arrival of water innovations. During the study, a coexistence of multiple irrigation systems was found : systems exclusively dedicated to receiving rainwater, systems linked to dams managed by the peasant community and drip systems, which were considered the most advanced. Due to this multiplicity, only three systems were chosen because of their closeness to the families with whom this study was made : a) the amunas system ; b) the system of family springs and c) the system of communal dams. Historically, the amunas system, being a pre-Hispanic system, is the oldest of the three ; it is followed by the system of family springs ; and, lastly, the most recent system is that of communal dams. With respects to their infrastructure, the three systems do not necessarily use similar materials : for example, it was observed that the system of communal dams and family springs are now beginning to import materials that stop or reduce the loss of water. It is the comunidad campesina that organizes the use of two of the three systems ; the only system that is not managed by this entity is the family springs, which have committees formed by the family groups that build their infrastructure. Of the three systems, the only one that is associated with festivities and rituals is the amunas system : the champería festivity is organized ritually (once a year) ; this festivity aims at cleaning the amunas infrastructure from champa (weeds) that grow in it and prevent its proper functioning. Water innovations have generated changes in agricultural and livestock activities in the area.


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