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Universidade Federal de Bahia (UFBA) 2020

Análise de viabilidade técnica e econômica do processo de dessalinização acoplado com sistema de energia solar no Estado da Bahia

Cunha, Diego Pessoa da Silva

Titre : Análise de viabilidade técnica e econômica do processo de dessalinização acoplado com sistema de energia solar no Estado da Bahia

Auteur : Cunha, Diego Pessoa da Silva

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Bahia (UFBA)

Grade : Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial 2020

Résumé
Saltwater desalination has proven to be a promising alternative to supply the high demand for drinking water around the world. In Brazil, lack of water is a recurrent problem, especially in the Brazilian semi-arid region, predominantly located in the Northeast. The use of renewable energies as energy source has many benefits and, among them, solar energy is very abundant and has a great potential for use in Brazil. The present work aims to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a desalination plant coupled with solar energy as the energy source. The desalination technique chosen was the multi-effect distillation (MED), a process that requires a high amount of thermal energy and therefore adapts well with solar energy. The city chosen for the case study was Bom Jesus da Lapa (BA), a city with a high incidence of solar radiation during the year and which also suffers from the lack of water. The solar collector model chosen was flat plates and a tank system for thermal energy storage was included to ensure the continuous operation of the desalination plant. The 90% brine recycle combined with treatment of the remaining brine was proposed seeking to solve a problem which is present in many desalination plants, the proper destination of the brine reject. Technical feasibility results show that water production of the 72 m³/day plant capacity with 2822 m² of solar collectors’ area presented satisfactory results. Results show that the tanks can keep the water hold up and temperature at the end of the day, indicating that the continuous production of water is technically feasible. In the economic feasibility study, the water sale’s price of US$ 5.97/m³ for a useful plant’s life of 20 years resulted in positives Net Present Value (NPV) and internal rate of return to plant implementation. A Monte Carlo analysis indicated that the NPV is very likely to be positive, even with the uncertainties inherent to the capital investment, operational costs and water sale prices. It is expected that the present work can contribute to the desalination investments in the Brazilian semiarid region, providing economic and social development.

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Page publiée le 6 décembre 2020