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Universidade Federal de Alagoas (2020)

As áreas verdes na qualidade térmica urbana : análise de cenários parametrizados em cidade de clima semiárido

Pereira, Jéssica Daiane Santos

Titre : As áreas verdes na qualidade térmica urbana : análise de cenários parametrizados em cidade de clima semiárido

Green areas in urban thermal quality : analysis of parameterized scenarios in a semi-arid climate city

Auteur : Pereira, Jéssica Daiane Santos

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Alagoas

Grade : Mestrado em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 2020

Résumé
The implications of the growth of cities, which occur in a way to subdue natural spaces, have become evident in recent decades, making it possible to perceive the need to seek balance and coexistence between natural and urban environments. Thus, we sought to analyze two situations : the relationship between the configurations of green areas with afforestation in reducing the air temperature and maintaining specific humidity and to analyze the influence of green wooded areas, with grassy soil and exposed soil in the hygrothermal variables on the urban grid, in climatic conditions of hot and dry and hot and humid days. To this end, a cartographic and quantitative survey of the existing subdivisions in the municipality of Arapiraca (AL) was carried out, in addition to the analysis of the municipal guidelines on the percentage of areas required for the approval of these projects, to subsidize the creation of five parameterized scenarios. The scenarios present green areas whose spaces are equivalent to 10% of the general area of the projected land, in different forms of spatialization : Central, Distributed, Linear, Mixed and Peripheral. All spatializations were simulated in two climatic conditions (hot and dry and hot and humid days) and in three groups : the first, with green wooded areas and grassy soil ; the second, with a green area with grassy soil only ; and the third, with a green area with exposed soil. All parameterized scenarios were modeled, first in AutoCAD 2019 software and, later, in ENVI-Met 4.0 software to generate simulations demonstrating the hygrothermal behavior of the scenarios. The analyzes were divided into two groups : the first compared, among the five types simulated with afforestation, which is the maximum area of influence achieved by the lowest air temperature and the highest specific air humidity present simultaneously in all scenarios ; the second group analyzed the relationship of tree vegetation in reducing air temperature and maintaining specific air humidity, in the comparison between wooded scenarios, with grassy and exposed soil. The analyzes are composed by the simulations of the hot and dry and hot and humid days separately, so that the comparisons are made in the scenarios under the same climatic conditions. The results showed that the spatialization of the green wooded area promotes different areas of influenc on the simulated space, in such a way that the Distributed and Mixed scenarios presented greater potential for reducing the air temperature. In addition, the afforestation scenarios register reduced air temperature and significant differences in specific air humidity, when compared to typologies with grassy soil and exposed soil.

Mots Clés  : Planejamento urbano Arborização urbana Conforto térmico Microclima urbano Áreas verdes Urban planning Green areas Thermal comfort Microclimates

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Page publiée le 6 décembre 2020