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Universidade Federal de Sergipe (2011)

Externalidades e (in) sustentabilidade na construção das barragens no baixo São Francisco

Oliveira, Vandemberg Salvador de

Titre : Externalidades e (in) sustentabilidade na construção das barragens no baixo São Francisco

EXTERNALITIES AND (IN) IN SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS IN THE LOWER ARE FRANCISCO .

Auteur : Oliveira, Vandemberg Salvador de

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Sergipe

Grade : Doutorado em Geografia 2011

Résumé
Brazil, the quest for energy independence, made his choice for power over other sources. This choice represents a political economy of energy production, begun in 1957, which has brought in his speech to improve the quality of life and economic development of the country. However, the production of electricity in our country, its development was linked to economic growth, therefore, their production has always been the subject of great debate as to its developers - private or public power. In this sense, dispersed throughout the Brazilian territory, the dams represent the potential of hydropower in Brazil, which is among the five largest in the world. The construction of large dams has had strong repercussions cultural, social, political and economic issues beyond the purely environmental. When they are built in populated areas, the power stations cause the so-called "compulsory migrations", which are the displacement of binding, made from expropriations of land held by the State. Traditional evaluations of dams are made considering only the eminently economic project, taking into account only the internal costs and the costs are not considered environmental, social and cultural, that is, negative externalities. The major difficulty in this type of evaluation is the survey of adverse impacts, the valuation of negative externalities. Considering the relevance today of issues like global energy modes of energy production and large-scale use of the river São Francisco for several purposes, the general objective of the thesis was to analyze the development and social and environmental sustainability in the Lower São Francisco from the effects of negative externalities generated by dams, as well as reflect and advance the field of research on the interactions between regional development, sustainability and the effects of externalities in the search for scientific models suitable for the identification, measurement, evaluation and internalization of negative externalities. The Hydroelectric Plant Xingó was chosen as the object of analysis for the application of the methodology developed in this thesis, especially considering the availability of data on the enterprise and for being a work of great importance for the Brazilian electrical system, in addition to their particular socio-environmental, making it a great interest in analyzing the effects of externalities in the Lower São Francisco. The Xingó Plant is the fourth largest hydroelectric plant in Brazil, built in the São Francisco river between the states of Alagoas and Sergipe, was completed in 1997 and amounted to a public investment of R$ 227 million. In dam projects, in general, not on the use of classical methods for economic valuation of external costs, including the two forms of degradation greater social and environmental impact - coupled with the expropriation and displacement of people greenhouse gas CO2 and CH4, which are greenhouse gases. The main negative externalities caused by the construction of a dam are the losses of future agricultural production, interference with ranching, forest loss, increased erosion and marginal dispossession and displacement of people

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