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American University in Cairo (2019)

Sustainable rural community : waste to business (W2B) model

Omar, Hala

Titre : Sustainable rural community : waste to business (W2B) model

Auteur : Omar, Hala

Université de soutenance : American University in Cairo

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering with a concentration in Mechanical Engineering 2019

Résumé partiel
Many environmental issues are facing rural villages in Egypt. The main problems rural villages are suffering from are lack of adequate sewage system, absence of wastewater treatment plants, poor agricultural and municipal solid waste management. These problems are causing environmental, economic and social issues in rural villages. Rural communities’ residents suffer from many disease, unemployment as well as poor living conditions. It becomes imperative to find solutions to this tragic situation facing rural villages associated with dumping and burning waste. Unfortunately, not enough research is published to propose solutions to approach full utilization of all types of wastes generated in rural villages and reach sustainability. The main goal of this research work is to develop and propose a concept to help rural communities in Egypt approach full utilization of all types of wastes generated. This research work is divided into three parts as follows : (1) developing a model to help rural villages in Egypt reach full utilization of waste, (2) recycling of organic waste, (3) recycling of rejects. In the first part of this research work desk research method is used. From the data analysis it is proposed to use the concepts developed in industrial sector to reach sustainable development such as the concept of cradle-to-cradle, industrial ecology, eco-industrial park, environmental balanced industrial complex and green economy in the development of rural villages. The concept of Waste to Business Model (W2B) is developed. It consists of developing a facility in each rural village that groups simple and obtainable technologies in one area to fully utilize all types of wastes generated from the rural village and transform it into useful products. The two following parts of this research work focus on two types of wastes that cause huge problems in rural villages in Egypt which are : (1) organic waste and (2) rejects. There are several types of organic waste and this research focuses on rice straw and animal manure. It is estimated that around 2.5million tons/year of rice straw and 63milliom ton/year of animal manure are generated in Egypt. Composting process is and easy and cheap solution to recycle organic waste. However, this method is not widely practiced in developing countries because it is time consuming and the quality of product can be unstable. There have been increasing attention on improving composting process. The aim of this part is to transform rice straw into high quality soil amendments and organic fertilizer. This part is divided into two sets of experiments. The objective of the first set of experiment is to transform rice straw into soil amendment and evaluate the effect of different additives on the produced compost. In the first set of experiment rice straw is inoculated with animal manure, Chinese starter, cellulose decomposer and starter from the Egyptian Ministry of agriculture. The results of the first set of experiments revealed that the application of different additives in composting of rice straw exhibited an improvement of compost quality and results indicated that a higher decomposition rate of treatment having animal manure, compared to other treatments

Mots clés : Rural Communities , Sustainability , Composting , Organic Fertilizer , Organic Waste , Rejects , Thermosets , Bricks , Interlocks


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