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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (2012)

Effect Of Sun-drying On Polyphenols And In Vitro Bioavailabity Of Sarilop And Bursa Siyahi Figs (ficus Carica L.)

KAMİLOĞLU Senem

Titre : Effect Of Sun-drying On Polyphenols And In Vitro Bioavailabity Of Sarilop And Bursa Siyahi Figs (ficus Carica L.)

Güneşte Kurutmanın Sarılop Ve Bursa Siyahî İncirleri (fıcus Carıca L.) Polifenolleri Ve İn Vitro Bioyararlılığına Etkisi

Auteur : KAMİLOĞLU Senem

Université de soutenance : İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2012

Résumé
Figs have been consumed as a part of Mediterranean diet for centuries either as fresh or dried fruit. Many epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, including fig fruit, can play an important role in preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The nutritional value of figs created an interest in the effect of processing on its valuable compounds showing antioxidant activity. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of sun-drying on the health-related constituents as well as bioavailability of figs ; total phenolics, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, lycopene, antioxidant capacity, major phenolic compounds and color properties were determined for two commercial fig varieties (Sarilop and Bursa siyahi) differing in color (yellow and dark purple) along with simulation of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. For each variety, four fractions were prepared, skin, pulp, and whole and dried fruit and all samples were obtained as three replicates. Major phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence detectors. The results showed that the moisture loss induced by processing fresh fig fruits into dried fruits was found to be 30% and 56% for Bursa siyahi and Sarilop varieties, respectively. In order to eliminate the differences in the moisture contents, all results are expressed on dry weight basis. Fresh Sarilop skin showed lightness values (L*) of 63.4 and hue angles (H°) of 96.1, indicating a bright yellow color ; whereas fresh Bursa siyahi skin showed lightness values (L*) of 33.4 and hue angles (H°) of 324.7, attesting to the typical dark purple color. Fresh fruit skins appeared to be brighter than dried ones, as reflected by 10% and 18% decrease in L* for Sarilop and Bursa siyahi, respectively. Total phenolic contents were found to be 211.2 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 492.9 mg GAE/100 g dry weight for fresh Sarilop and Bursa siyahi, respectively. Fruit skins had higher phenolic content than pulps, as expected. After drying, both the decrease by 8% in total phenolic content of Sarilop and the 15% decrease in case of Bursa siyahi were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Total flavonoid contents of fresh Sarilop and Bursa siyahi was found to be 8.0 mg CE/100 g dry weight and 65.6 mg CE/100 g dry weight, respectively. Most flavonoids were located in the fruit skin (62.8 and 233.6 mg CE/100 g dry weight for Sarilop and Bursa siyahi, respectively). The decrease in total flavonoid content as a result of drying was found to be 21% in Bursa siyahi ; on the other hand an increase by 70% was observed in Sarilop when dried. For Bursa siyahi, there was no significant difference between fresh and dried fruits, however, dried fruits of Sarilop were significantly higher than fresh fruits (p<0.05). Total proanthocyanidin contents were determined as 6.5 mg cyanidin eq./100 g dry weight and 61.9 cyanidin eq./100 g dry weight for fresh Sarilop and Bursa siyahi, respectively. Drying resulted with a significant decrease by 75% in total proanthocyanidin content in Bursa siyahi figs whereas a statistically significant increase by 70% was observed in Sarilop (p<0.05). Total anthocyanin contents were found to be 4.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g dry weight for Sarilop, and 83.4 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g dry weight for Bursa siyahi. Among two varities, Bursa siyahi showed the highest anthocyanin content, with most of the anthocyanins accumulated in the fruit skin (195.5 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g dry weight)

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