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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (2016)

Quantification Of Saharan Dust İnfluences On Eastern Mediterranean Air Quality Via Atmospheric Modeling

KABATAŞ Burcu

Titre : Quantification Of Saharan Dust İnfluences On Eastern Mediterranean Air Quality Via Atmospheric Modeling

Sahra Tozunun Doğu Akdeniz Hava Kalitesi Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Atmosfer Modeliyle Belirlenmesi

Auteur : KABATAŞ Burcu

Université de soutenance : İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Résumé partiel
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is a major environmental risk to health for urban population in both developed and developing countries and particulate matter (PM) affects more people than any other pollutant. Particles less than 10 micrometers are called PM10, and fine inhalable particles, with diameters that are generally 2.5 micrometers and smaller are called PM2.5. Among sources of particulate matter, mineral dust is one of main contributors of natural aerosol emissions on a global basis contributing around 22% and Sahara is the main contributor to the global dust budget. Epidemiologic studies show that there is a clear link between the dust and adverse health problems such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Aside from its effects on human health, transported dust also affects ecosystem by transporting a variety of chemicals and microbial agents (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) from source area to other regions. Dust can have both physical and chemical impacts on plants. For instance, it may serve essential nutrients for plant growth such as iron, and phosphorus, yet microbial agents that can be carried thousands of miles in the atmosphere, might be pathogenic to the plants causing rust and other plant disorders. Mineral dust also has a direct role on the radiation budget and regional climate and has a semi-direct effect on cloud cover. Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems in the Mediterranean basin since the limit values of the pollutants are often exceeded. Saharan dust intrusions into the Mediterranean Basin affects 427 million people living in the 21 countries surrounding it. Considering its location, Turkey is downwind of Europe and on the crossroad of long-range dust transport and local emissions, meaning high amount of population living in Turkey are exposed to high PM concentration. The contribution of Saharan dust on PM concentration is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean, especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas (i.e., Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir) are located. This study aims to quantify the contribution of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 that was measured in April 2008 via ground observations, satellite data and atmospheric models. Ground observations that is used in this study were obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization for the year 2008. Data analysis of the ground observations showed April 2008 had significantly higher values compared to other warm season months with a monthly mean of 87 μg/m3, where the annual mean PM10 concentration of 2008 was found to be 82 μg/m3. It is known from the literature that the transition seasons are usually associated with dust transport from Sahara Desert in the Mediterranean Basin. One method to understand the complex nature of aerosol formation is via atmospheric models.

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