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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (2014)

Multitemporal Change Detection On Urmia Lake And Its Catchment Area using Remote Sensing And Geographical Information Systems

Alizade Govarchin Ghale, Yusuf

Titre : Multitemporal Change Detection On Urmia Lake And Its Catchment Area using Remote Sensing And Geographical Information Systems

Urmiye Gölündeki Zamansal Değişimlerin Uzaktan Algılama Ve Cbs Kullanılarak Belirlenmesi

Auteur : Alizade Govarchin Ghale, Yusuf

Université de soutenance : İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2014

Résumé partiel
Different types of environmental sources, especially water bodies play a crucial role in human life and economy. Nowadays, the significance of water bodies, especially fresh water sources like lakes is increasing since these sources are being threatened due to global warming, drought and human needs. In addition to serving as supply for human needs such as irrigation and drinking water, a water reserve in a lake and its catchment area can also be important source contributing to country’s economy and policy like the case of Urmia Lake in Iran. Urmia Lake is located in the northwest of Iran between West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan provinces (N 37.5° E 45.5°). Its catchment area is about 51876 km² and it is the largest inland lake of Iran and the second largest hypersaline lake in the world after Dead Sea and the habitat of Artemia Urmiana which is a unique bisexual Artemia Species. The brine shrimp Artemia is a zooplanktonic organism found in hypersaline habitats such as inland salt lakes, coastal salt pans and manmade saltworks worldwide. Urmia Lake is divided into 2 parts including north and south parts separated by a causeway which has about 1500 m bridge allows a little water exchange between 2 parts. Due to the establishment of different dams on contrary rivers which supply Urmia Lake’s water, establishment of more than 80,000 wells in Urmia Lake’s catchment area, increased demands for irrigation in the Lake’s basin, temperature and precipitation changes, and drought, the salinity of the lake has risen remarkable during recent years, and about 70% of the lake’s area is drought. There are two important points that should be emphasized for the temperature and precipitation changes impacts on Urmia Lake and its vicinity. Firstly, the annual amount of water the lake receives has significantly decreased as a result of establishment of dams, wells, and drought. This in turn has increased the salinity of the lake’s water, lowering the lake viability as home to thousands of migratory birds including the large flamingo populations and diminishing other assets especially Artemia Urmiana. Secondly, it is also important to consider the results of drying Urmia Lake and its risks on human life and ecosystem in Iran and neighbor countries of Urmia Lake. Drying of Urmia Lake will impact the local and regional climate of the area and this will have severe impacts on human and environment. Hotter temperature values and water shortage as a result of complete drying of Urmia Lake may even cause diseases and migration of local people. A similar example to Urmia Lake case is Aral Sea and its vicinity, therefore lessons learned from the Aral Sea case should be taken into account for the protection of Urmia Lake.

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