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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2020 → Multi-scale Spatial Analysis of the Water-Food-Climate Nexus in the Nile Basin using Earth Observation Data.

Universität zu Köln. (2020)

Multi-scale Spatial Analysis of the Water-Food-Climate Nexus in the Nile Basin using Earth Observation Data.

Khalifa, Muhammad Saeed Ahmed

Titre : Multi-scale Spatial Analysis of the Water-Food-Climate Nexus in the Nile Basin using Earth Observation Data.

Auteur : Khalifa, Muhammad Saeed Ahmed

Université de soutenance : Universität zu Köln.

Grade : Doktorgrade 2020

Résumé partiel
Securing enough water and food for everyone is a great challenge that the humanity faces today. This challenge is aggravated by many external drivers such as population growth, climate variability, and degradation of natural resources. Solutions for weak water and food securities require holistic knowledge of the different involved drivers through a nexus approach that looks at the interlinkages and the multi-directional synergies to be promoted and increased and trade-offs to be reduced or eliminated. In particular, the interlinkages between water, food, and climate, the so-called Water-Food-Climate Nexus (WFC Nexus) is critical for the given challenge in many regions around the world such as the Nile Basin (NB). Studying the WFC Nexus synergies and trade-offs might provide entry points for the required interventions that are potential to induce positive impacts on water and food securities. However, these synergies and trade-offs are not well known due to factors such as the complexity of the interactions which involve many dimensions within and across spatial and temporal domains and unavailability of reliable ground observations that could be used for such analysis. Therefore, multidisciplinary research that encompasses different methodologies and employs datasets with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions is required. The recent advancement in Earth Observation (EO) sensors and data processing algorithms have resulted in the accumulation of big data that are produced in rates faster than their usage in solving real challenges such as the one that is in the focus of the current research. The availability of public-domain datasets for several parameters with spatial and temporal coverage offers an excellent opportunity to discover the WFC Nexus interlinkages. To this end, the main goal of the current research is to employ EO data derived from public-domain datasets and supplemented with other primary and secondary data to identify WFC Nexus synergies and trade-offs in the NB region, taking the agricultural systems in Sudan as a central focus of this assessment. By concentrating mainly on the agricultural systems in Sudan, which are characterized by low performance and efficiency despite the huge potentials for food production, the current research provides a representative case study that could deliver helpful and transferrable knowledge to many areas within and outside the NB region. In the current research, multi-scale analysis of the WFC Nexus synergies and trade-offs was conducted. The assessment involved investigations on a country scale as a strategic level, and on river basin, agricultural scheme (both irrigated and rainfed systems) and field scales as operational levels. On a country scale, a general analysis of the vegetation’s Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and Water and Carbon Use Efficiencies (WUE and CUE, respectively) in different land cover types was carried out. A comparison between the land cover types in Sudan and Ethiopia was conducted to understand and compare the impact of inter-annual climate variability on the NPP, WUE and CUE indicators of these different land cover types under relatively different climate regimes. The results of this analysis indicate low magnitude of the three indicators in the land cover types that are in Sudan compared to their counterparts in Ethiopia. Moreover, the response of these indicators to climate variability varies widely among the land cover types. In addition, land cover types such as forests and woody savannah represent important natural sinks for the atmospheric CO2 that need to be protected.


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