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Universität Hohenheim (2018)

Non-agricultural activities and household time use in Ethiopia : a computable general equilibrium model analysis

Mosa, Abdulaziz Abdulsemed

Titre : Non-agricultural activities and household time use in Ethiopia : a computable general equilibrium model analysis

Auteur : Mosa, Abdulaziz Abdulsemed

Université de soutenance : Universität Hohenheim

Grade : Dr.sc.agr. /Ph.D. in Agricultural Sciences 2018

Résumé partiel
Large shares of rural households engage, next to agricultural activities, in non-agricultural activities in most regions of Ethiopia. Non-agricultural activity is indispensable to reduce rural poverty and income inequality and contributes to livelihoods. The sector is crucially relevant for those who lack alternatives especially for women and landless rural households. However, the constraints of non-agricultural activities are not well studied and documented in Ethiopia. Few attempts have been made to identify the impediments to non-agricultural activities based on household surveys with limited coverage that are hardly representative of the whole country. Furthermore, to secure the potential benefits gained from the development of non-agricultural activities, it is essential to recognize and reduce the barriers confronted by the sector. To the author’s best knowledge, the potential economy-wide benefits drawn by reducing the impediments of non-agricultural activities are barely been studied and recognized. In other words, the potential effects of different policy instruments for facilitating non-agricultural activities are unexplored by the empirical literature on Ethiopia. Against this background, this study uses a comprehensive and country representative household survey to identify the constraints of non-agricultural activities in Ethiopia. Furthermore, two policy options for promoting rural non-agricultural activities are examined and discussed : First, the non-agricultural labor supply is stimulated by freeing labor time from labor-intensive home activities such as collecting water and firewood and second, the effect of improved access to road transport infrastructure for enhancing non-agricultural activities and its economy-wide outcomes are analyzed. The study reveals that major constraints of non-agricultural activities are limited access to finance, lack of market opportunities, limited education/training and poor access to roads, transport and communication. Rural households participate in non-agricultural activities due to a lack of access to agricultural land, low/volatile earnings, to look for a means to invest in agriculture and social/economic independence. The major non-agricultural activities are services (such as carpentry and transport), trade (wholesale and retail trade) and manufacturing (such as grain milling and brewing). The study also investigates the impact of water fetching and firewood collection on non-agricultural activities in Ethiopia. Since the sources of water and firewood are not easily accessible, households spend long hours per day for collecting water and firewood. For instance, rural households on average spend 0.64 hours per day for fetching water and 0.58 hours per day for firewood collection. The finding of this study reveals that water fetching and firewood collection adversely affect the adoption of non-agricultural activities in Ethiopia. Specifically, households that spend more labor hours for collecting water and firewood are less likely to engage in non-agricultural activities.

Mots clés  : Non-agricultural Activities , Computable General Equilibrium Model , water fetching , firewood collection , Household time use

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