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University of Kassel (2020)

Design of a decentralised camel milk processing plant with integration of renewable energy supply

Ogolla, Jackline Akinyi

Titre : Design of a decentralised camel milk processing plant with integration of renewable energy supply

Auteur :

Université de soutenance : University of Kassel

Grade : Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften (Dr. agr.) 2020

Résumé partiel
The dairy sector comprising bovine, camel and goats milk production is the largest agricultural subsector in Kenya, and its share in gross domestic product (GDP) is approximately 4%. Kenya’s camel milk plays a significant role in meeting the nutritional and economic needs of the publics in the Arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), despite this, there is limited information on the preservation technologies, losses, utilisation of non-marketed milk along the camel milk supply chain and on its value-added products. Besides, spray drying has been documented to produce milk powders that have long shelf lives of up to 18 months thus limiting losses associated with fluid milk storage. Nonetheless, there is limited data on spray drying application in the camel milk industry. Further, the ASALs are characterised by high solar irradiation, providing an opportunity for utilization of solar energy in the preservation of camel milk, yet, no harnessing of this solar irradiation has been explored. Moreover, development and techno-economic feasibility of establishing a decentralised small-scale hybrid solar-fossil fuel camel milk powder and butter processing plants in the ASALs has not been explored. Thus, the overall aim of this dissertation is to enhance the understanding of the camel milk supply chain in the ASALs, camel milk powder production and to present the development and techno-economic feasibility of a novel decentralised small-scale hybrid solarfossil fuel powered process design for camel milk powder and butter processing plant for the ASALs.

Therefore, to meet the overall dissertation aim, the following three specific objectives were formulated : 1. To examine the technologies and strategies used in camel milk preservation in the ASALs and the utilization of the non-marketed milk. 2. To determine the influence of inlet air drying temperature and milk flow rate on the thermal, physical and optical properties of spray dried camel milk. 3. To develop and determine the techno-economic feasibility of a novel decentralised smallscale hybrid solar-fossil fuel powered process design for camel milk powder and butter processing plant for the ASALs.

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Page publiée le 6 janvier 2021