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North-West University (2020)

The effectiveness of domestic water treatment processes, North West Province, South Africa

Gumbi, N.

Titre : The effectiveness of domestic water treatment processes, North West Province, South Africa

Auteur : Gumbi, N.

Université de soutenance : North-West University

Grade : Master of Science in Environmental Sciences 2020

Résumé
People are increasingly concerned with the quality of water they drink. Globally, there is still an alarming rate of people who do not have access to basic services such as a supply of clean drinking water from the faucets. This is greatly concerning because our natural water reserves are diminishing exponentially as a result of climate change. Additionally, our water sources are increasingly polluted by anthropogenic activities ; which makes the minority of people who are dependent on direct water source consumption at a higher health risk. In the Republic of South Africa, municipalities and independent water boards treat and supply domestic water to urban, semi-urban and some rural areas. This water is mainly for drinking purposes, hence it must meet the specified drinking water quality guidelines according to the South African National Standards (SANS 241) in order to be deemed safe for domestic use. The North West province, in general, is under-resourced, and made of under-privileged communities. Most municipalities in the North West are battling to maintain the aging water infrastructures. Hence, there is a challenge with the water quality, and supply, in places like Mmabatho. In this study, all parameters are measured and compared to specified drinking water quality limits according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Department of Water Affairs ; and then discussed with reference to the national drinking water standards (SANS 241). Current improvements of analytical methods allow for the detection of impurities, even at lower concentrations, and make it easier to ascertain the quality of the water. This study occurred at the water treatment plants of Mmabatho and Klerksdorp. The plant operators from Mmabatho Water Treatment Plant and Midvaal Water Company assisted with the collection of water samples from designated water sampling points ; (i) before the treatment process (inlet), and (ii) after the treatment process (outlet). Sterilised and treated water sampling containers that were already labelled accordingly, were used to collect water for microbiological analysis. Sampling containers for chemical analysis were prewashed and oven dried prior to use. Physical parameters were measured in situ using various hand-held instruments ; while the chemical and microbiological parameters were analysed ex situ using various laboratory instruments

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