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Vaal University of Technology (2018)

Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of crude extracts from selected Tulbaghia species

Takaidza, Samkeliso

Titre : Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of crude extracts from selected Tulbaghia species

Auteur : Takaidza, Samkeliso

Université de soutenance : Vaal University of Technology

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) : Biotechnology 2018

Résumé partiel
The genus Tulbaghia has been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as fever, earache, tuberculosis and esophageal cancer. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support its use. Therefore the objectives of this study were to perform phytochemical analysis, investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, immunomodulatory activities and toxicity of crude acetone and water extracts from selected Tulbaghia species. Standard methods were used for preliminary phytochemical analysis. The total phenolic content of the plant extracts was determined using the folin ciocalteu method whereas the total flavonoids were determined by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric method. DPPH and ABTS assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by agar well diffusion, microtiter dilution and time kill assays. For anticancer studies, the antiproliferative activity of the extracts was evaluated using the MTT assay on Hkesc-1 and KB cells. Morphological changes of the cancer cells treated with extracts were examined using light microscopy. Induction of apoptosis was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted to examine the multicaspase activity and cell cycle arrest. For immunomodulatory activity, the Greiss reagent and Luminex cytokine assays were used to determine the effect of the extracts on NO production and the concentration of the cytokines in the treated cells, respectively. Toxicity of selected Tulbaghia species was examined by investigating the effect of the extracts on the metabolic activity and cell membrane integrity on the treated RAW264.7 cells using the MTT and LDH assays, respectively. The zebrafish assay was used to evaluate the embryotoxicity and teratogenic effects of crude acetone and water extracts of T. violacea at 24 h intervals for 96 h post fertilisation (hpf). The percentage mortality, hatchability and heart rate were examined. Phytochemical screening of eight Tulbaghia species demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, saponins and steroids. The amount of total phenol and flavonoid content varied in different plant extracts ranging from 4.50 to 11.10 milligrams gallic acid equivalent per gram (mg GAE/g) of fresh material and 3.04 to 9.65 milligrams quercetin equivalent per gram (mg QE/g) of fresh material respectively.

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