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Universidad Nacional del Sur (2020)

Alternativas de cultivos tendientes a mejorar la sustentabilidad de los sistemas de producción de la región semiárida pampeana

Gaggioli, Carolina Luciana

Titre : Alternativas de cultivos tendientes a mejorar la sustentabilidad de los sistemas de producción de la región semiárida pampeana

Auteur : Gaggioli, Carolina Luciana

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional del Sur

Grade : Doctor en Agronomia 2020

Résumé
In areas where water resources are scarce the economic water productivity has to be improved, that means to increase the value received per unit of water used in production. This could be achieved either by an increase in physical water productivity which would lead to more kg of grains per mm of rainfall, or by producing crops with higher unit value. The general objective of this thesis was to evaluate crops with special value for grain quality as to physical and economic water productivity, as well as physiological variables that influence them, in two contrasting soils in water economy management. With the purpose of obtaining the most appropriate options to integrate rotations and improve the sustainability of the agricultural and mixed systems in the semiarid region. In order to achieve this goal field experiments were carried out during three years with different species and cultivars, both traditional and alternative, with promising conditions of productivity. These experiments were carried out simultaneously in two contrasting soils that are representative of the region, and which were in the same meteorological conditions. One was a loam-texture petrocalcic Paleustoll and the other a loamy sand typic Ustipsamment with a groundwater level around 3 m depth. Besides, in both soils the effect of fertilization was evaluated. The selected crops included sunflower cultivars with different fatty acid composition, group 1 and 3 industrial quality wheat crops, malting barley, canola and safflower. These crops were compared among each other in terms of productivity and economic returns, based on data of yield, water consumption, water use efficiency, physiological characteristics and economic indices. Generally, more problems with crop implantation were observed in the Ustipsamment, although, once these were established this soils provided better moisture conditions in droughts than the Paleustoll, partly due to the shallow water table. Furthermore, in this soil fertilization was a fundamental practice needed to improve the sustainability. The results for each crop were highly dependent of soil type and the rainfall during the season. For sunflower the Ustipsamment provided better yield stability for all genotypes, as well as productive and economic advantages. In the Paleustoll there was a higher risk associated to sunflower crops, although in this soil the differential-quality genotypes had more chance to achieve an economic benefit. Similarly, the wheat crops had higher stability in the Ustipsamment, although in the moister seasons yields were higher in the Paleustoll with higher quality and comparative advantages for the group 1 cultivars. Barley and canola, however, maintained higher productivity in this soil under different climatic conditions, while safflower showed least differences among soil types and thus presented an interesting alternative if certain difficulties for implantation and commercialization can be overcome. The information that emerged from this thesis can be applied to diversify rotations, incorporating crops with higher resource-use efficiency, adapted to both types of soils that are most frequently encountered in the region.

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Page publiée le 17 janvier 2021