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Accueil du site → Master → Afrique du Sud → 2002 → Spatio-temporal variations of fluoride in surface and ground water : a case study of the Umgeni Water operational area, KwaZulu-Natal.

University of KwaZulu-Natal (2002)

Spatio-temporal variations of fluoride in surface and ground water : a case study of the Umgeni Water operational area, KwaZulu-Natal.

Ramjatan, Ashadevi.

Titre : Spatio-temporal variations of fluoride in surface and ground water : a case study of the Umgeni Water operational area, KwaZulu-Natal.

Auteur : Ramjatan, Ashadevi.

Université de soutenance : University of KwaZulu-Natal

Grade : Masters Degree in Environment and Development 2002

Résumé partiel
In September 2000 water fluoridation became mandatory in South Africa. Since then water service providers like Umgeni Water (UW), a bulk water supply authority in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province of South Africa began the process of implementing the legislation. This study was undertaken to establish the spatio-temporal variations of fluoride concentrations in surface and ground waters within the Umgeni Operational Area, to establish whether these waters would require fluoridation or defluoridation to meet a fluoride concentration of 0.70 mglf, and to assess the potential impacts of water fluoridation. Baseline fluoride concentrations of surface and ground water : It was concluded that the fluoride concentration of all sample types (rivers, dams, water works raw and final waters, wastewater influent and effluents, and boreholes), except pollution point sources, is less than O.S ; mglR, 50 percent of the time. Some rivers (Mshazi, KwaNyuswa, KwaNgcolosi,·Mshwati and the MgoShongweni) exhibited high fluoride concentrations, while someboreholes also exhibited high fluoride concentrations. Temporal Variations and Seasonality : There are seasonal variations in the fluoride concentrations for surface waters, with higher fluoride concentrations in winter than in summer (64 out of 125 occasions). This low fluoride concentration in summer can be attributed to the dilution effects caused by rainfall runoff. Identification of "Hot Spots" : "Hot Spots", sites where the fluoride concentration exceeds 1 mglR are present within the study area, for surface and borehole water. For surface water, the MgoShongweni exhibited fluoride concentrations in excess of 1mglRat least 75% of the time. The KwaNgcolosi and Mshwati exhibited fluoride concentrations In excess of 1mglR at least 25% of the time, while the Mshazi and the KwaNyuswa exhibited fluoride concentrations in excess of 1mglR only 5% of the time.

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