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Université de Cordoba (2019)

Efecto Bioactivo de extractos fenólicos procedentes de alpeorujo fresco obtenidos mediante disolventes eutécticos naturales profundos (NADES)

Orosco Poncela Alejandro

Titre : Efecto Bioactivo de extractos fenólicos procedentes de alpeorujo fresco obtenidos mediante disolventes eutécticos naturales profundos (NADES)

Auteur : Orosco Poncela Alejandro

Université de soutenance : Université de Cordoba

Le programme du Master est organisé conjointement par Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), Consejería de Agricultura, Pesca y Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía (CAP), Instituto Andaluz de Investigación y Formación Agraria, Pesquera, Alimentaria y de la Producción Ecológica (IFAPA), Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM) à travers l’Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Zaragoza (IAMZ), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) et Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)

Grade : Master Universitaire en Oliviculture et Oléotechnie 2019

Résumé en Espagnol – Anglais
Alpeorujo is the by-product of the production of olive oil by means of two-stage separation systems. It is a semi-solid material composed of an aqueous phase, pulp remnants and fractions of the olive pit. It presents disadvantages in its management and handling due to its high production, concentrated in the olive season months, its physical properties and its high toxicity to the environment. This toxicity is largely due to its high concentration in phenolic compounds, which have phytotoxic and antimicrobial characteristics. Moreover, these compounds are phytochemicals demanded by the pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical and cosmetic industries precisely because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti- nflammatory which make them preventive substances for a wide range of diseases. NADES (Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents) are solvents formed by components of natural origin, presenting low toxicity, are readily available, low cost, cover a wide range of polarities and are highly extractive, which makes them easily usable in the avobe mentioned industries. In this work, the phenolic fraction of fresh alpeorujos was extracted from three varieties of olives with two different NADES solvents in order to determine whether the phenolic extracts obtained had an antimicrobial effect and could be used as biopesticides and otherwise, analyze its cytotoxicity on cells of higher organisms to determine its posible use in animal feed. Phenolic compounds were determined and quantified for each of the extracts. The microbiological analysis was tested on six strains of phytopathogenic bacteria of significant economic importance for agriculture in countries of the Mediterranean área by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The cytotoxicity study was performed on microglia cells and the toxicity of the extracts was determined by MTT tests. The evolution of phenolic compounds of NADES extracts was also studied by means of an in vitro digestion simulating the digestive processes that occur in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. The extracts needed to be conditioned to allow testing on microorganisms and cells. As a result of this work, NADES extracts were obtained with concentrations in polyphenols of between 8000 mg/l and 4500 mg/ml that showed bacteriostatic activity comparable to that exhibited by other phenolic extracts of natural origin. During the simulated digestive process, there were significant phenol losses. Both NADES presented cytotoxicity at high concentrations ; however, extracts obtained with these NADES counteracted this cytotoxicity. The results obtained open a wide field of study to determine and deepen the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory qualities of these extracts to be used as biopesticides, or as bioactive components with nutraceutical potential.

Source : Master of Oliviculture et Oleotechnie

Page publiée le 26 février 2021