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Universidad de Córdoba (2020)

Recursos fitogenéticos para la alimentación en la Barranca del Río Santiago (Jalisco, México)

Tena Meza, Martín Pedro

Titre : Recursos fitogenéticos para la alimentación en la Barranca del Río Santiago (Jalisco, México)

Plant genetic resources for food in the Barranca del Río Santiago (Jalisco, Mexico)

Auteur : Tena Meza, Martín Pedro

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Córdoba

Grade : Doctorado BIOCIENCIAS Y CIENCIAS AGROALIMENTARIAS 2020

Résumé partiel
The objective of this thesis was to assess the state of plant genetic resources for food in the Barranca del Río Santiago, it is located in western Mexico, in the ecoregion of the western canyons, place where the warm sub-humid climate and the hot dry forests coincide. This type of vegetation during the rainy season is green and dense compared to the dry season when the vegetation loses its foliage and appears gray and barren. During the ethnobotanical exploration carried out in the 72 338 ha that makes up the study area, farmers reported 196 taxa with food use, representing 52 botanical families. The most representative are Fabaceae, Cactaceae, Solanaceae, and Anacardiaceae. Most of the records (84%) correspond to native plants and are distributed in seven different environments according to the type of management carried out by the farmers, most of them grow wild (43%), in the backyards (15 %) and the irrigation gardens (14%). The most consumed plant structure is fruits (54%), and the most frequent types of food are fruits (33,85%), vegetables (23,2%) and sandwiches (19,4%). The total number of registered food plants is similar to or higher than in other areas of the country with similar conditions. Based on the analysis of the inventory of plant genetic resources, the strategy was defined to know the type of relationships and the conditions that plant genetic resources present for food and the traditional knowledge that their inhabitants have about them. It was chosen to work with : (a) the group of wild species that could have the greatest impact on the conservation of the study area and the benefit to its inhabitants ; (b) select a particular wild species that could serve as an umbrella species for the conservation of the study area and its phytogenetic resources ; (c) a marginal native cultivar ; and (d) an expanding native cultivar (industrial cultivation). Even though the ranchers of the ravine recognize a large number of edible herbs (19% of the total) and that they have a long tradition of consumption, this type of plants is increasingly scarce and difficult to consume due to the use of pesticides in the cultivation fields ; therefore, woody plants (trees and shrubs, which make up 52% of the total records) were considered to be the most important group of edible species from the ecological, economic and social point of view.

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