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Universidad de Córdoba (2019)

Mejora de olivo para adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales y sistemas de cultivo

Navas López, José Francisco

Titre : Mejora de olivo para adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales y sistemas de cultivo

Olive tree breeding for adaptation to different environmental conditions and growing systems

Auteur : Navas López, José Francisco

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Córdoba

Grade : Doctorado en Ingeniería Agraria, Alimentaria, Forestal y de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible 2019

Résumé partiel
Introduction. In the las decades, el olive growing has been expanded around de world due principally to the high profitability obtained by the new growing systems and to the nutritional and healthy characteristics showed by the extra virgin olive oil. Traditional cultivars have been used to be planted in these new cultivation areas. However, no previous analysis of the olive behavior on those new climates has been performed. In fact, some of these cultivars have showed significant anomalies on the productive behavior. For example, a great yield loss as been observed in Argentina due to lack of flowering and very low olive oil quality has been obtained in Australia due to the climatic conditions. All this is partly due to the fact that there is no previous reports on the influence of different climatic conditions on the behavior of the most popular cultivars. Therefore, the evaluation of the genotype x environment interaction is essential to determine the adaptation of the cultivars to different environments and to predict the olive tree behavior under the climate change effects. Besides this genotype x environment evaluation is of paramount importance to develop efficient selection strategies in olive breeding programs. 2. Research content. This PhD was based on a multi-environment trail planted in 2006 by IFAPA and that was evaluated for several agronomic traits for two years (2015 and 2016). This trial is planted in five different environments (Antequera, Baena, Gibraleón, Tabernas y Úbeda), using traditional cultivars (‘Arbequina’, ‘Arbosana’, ‘Carrasqueño’, ‘Changlot real’, ‘Frantoio’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Ocal’ y ‘Picual’) as well as two breeding selections (‘Selection 1’ and ‘Selection 2’) from the olive breeding program UCO-IFAPA. The first character considered was flowering, in which flowering phenology and flower quality were evaluated. Flowering phenology showed little genotype and interaction contribution, being the environment only factor with significant influence. For flower quality, genotype and genotype x environment interaction were highly significant, pointing ‘Arbequina’ out as a cultivar with high flower quality across environments. The second character evaluated on the above mentioned multi-environment trial was the olive oil accumulation pattern in fruit dry weight.

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