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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Espagne → 2019 → Climate and environmental change in southern Europe – The paleoecological record of Padul, Sierra Nevada (western Mediterranean, southern Iberian Peninsula)

Universidad de Granada (2019)

Climate and environmental change in southern Europe – The paleoecological record of Padul, Sierra Nevada (western Mediterranean, southern Iberian Peninsula)

Camuera Bidaurreta, Jon

Titre : Climate and environmental change in southern Europe – The paleoecological record of Padul, Sierra Nevada (western Mediterranean, southern Iberian Peninsula)

Auteur : Camuera Bidaurreta, Jon

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Granada

Grade : Tesis Doctoral 2019

Résumé
There are large gaps in our understanding of natural climate variability and how the water cycle and ecosystems will respond to global climate warming. Several scientific reports show that in the near future the southern Iberian Peninsula and other Mediterranean areas will be affected by increased drought frequency. This will generate very important economic and social problems in this region, characterized by scarce water resources. However, climate prediction is still a challenge, due to lack of long databases with quantitative measurements (especially for precipitation and temperature) and studies of how the environment reacted to climate change before the historical record. To solve this problem we need long continuous paleoclimatic records that will allow us to predict ecosystem response to climate change at short and long term. The present PhD Thesis focuses on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last two glacial-interglacial cycles (the last 200,000 years) in southern Iberian Peninsula through the study of the Padul-15-05 core, a 42.64 m-long continuous continental record that was retrieved from the Padul wetland. This sediment core was studied using high-resolution multiproxy analyses, including lithology/sedimentology, physical properties, mineralogy, inorganic and organic geochemistry, paleontological analysis and chronological analysis. These multiproxy analyses have provided with high-quality data that can be used for local (Padul wetland) and regional (southern Iberian Peninsula) paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. The obtained data allowed identifying environmental variability due to orbital- and sub-orbital scale climate changes, improving the comprehension of factors and patterns influencing the environment caused by past climate changes in this region. The compilation of several marine and continental paleoclimatic records from southern Europe and the Mediterranean region reveal an early record of Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1 between 17,780 and 15,080 cal yr BP) in the study area with respect to the correspondent Greenland Stadial 2.1a from Greenland ice core records (GS-2.1a ; 17,480 – 14,692 cal yr BP). Moreover, high-resolution pollen analysis allowed identifying three main climatic phases during HS1 in the Padul record, i.e., HS1a (18,400 – 17,200 cal yr BP), HS1b (17,200 – 16,700 cal yr BP) and HS1c (16,700 – 15,600 cal yr BP), showing an overall arid(cold) – humid(cool) – arid(cold) trend. In addition, for the first time, seven centennial-scale sub-phases within HS1 (i.e., HS1a.1, HS1a.2, HS1a.3, HS1b, HS1c.1, HS1c.2 and HS1c.3) have been described, which seem to be related with solar activity.

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