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Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (2018)

Búsqueda de agentes estimulantes del crecimiento vegetal a partir de compost procedente de restos hortícolas : producción de vitaminas y fitohormonas

Vasco Delgado, Patricia

Titre : Búsqueda de agentes estimulantes del crecimiento vegetal a partir de compost procedente de restos hortícolas : producción de vitaminas y fitohormonas

Auteur : Vasco Delgado, Patricia

Université de soutenance : Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

Grade : Máster Universitario en Gestión, Tratamiento y Valorización de Residuos Orgánicos 2018

Résumé
The increase in agricultural practices has led to a decrease of organic matter in agricultural soils which causes a loss of fertility. A solution to this problem is the addiction of organic matter to the soil by the application of compost, which modifies the physical-chemical properties and the nutritional properties of the soil, affecting microbial population levels. In response to this need to generate clean crops, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms, also called PGPR (Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) has been implemented. About 2 to 5% of the rhizobacteria exert a beneficial effect on plant growth. PGPRs may induce plant growth promotion directly, by producing a metabolite or activity able to stimulate plant growth, or indirectly, by producing a metabolite that changes other rhizospheric factors causing an improvement or stimulation of the growth of the plant. Within plant growth promoting bacteria there are species belonging to a large number of bacterial genera such as Azobacter, Acetobacter, Azospirillum, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Bacillus. Not only bacteria can do this beneficial activity, also fungi have been shown to have the same characteristics as PGPRs. These fungi are called PGPF. Several PGPFs have been identified until now, belonging to the genera Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium and Phoma. In this essay, 10 bacterial strains from plant based-compost (7 bacteria and 3 fungi), were selected to evaluate their capacity as possible PGPR and PGPF. To do this, we studied its ability to produce both the vitamins Niacin, Biotin and Pantothenic Acid and the phytohormone Indolacetic Acid. The results showed that all strains analysed were able to produce at least one of the stimulants of plant growth. Among the bacterial strains stand out P. stutzeri (TER3A), P. stutzeri (MESA2) and B. licheniformis (MESAD2), which were able to produce at different concentrations all the vitamins and phytohormone studied. It is also worth mentioning the role played by the selected fungi, which even exceeded the bacteria in terms of vitamin production

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