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Aligarh Muslim University (2016)

Water Resource Management in Saudi Arabia

Mohammad Suhail

Titre : Water Resource Management in Saudi Arabia

Auteur : Mohammad Suhail

Université de soutenance : Aligarh Muslim University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016 (?)

Résumé partiel
Arabian Peninsula is one of the most water-scarce regions of the world, being the part of this region ; Saudi Arabia is not an exception to it. Natural water supply in Saudi Arabia, regarding precipitation, is low and even sometimes not a single drop of water is received in a whole year. Mainly the country is dependent upon underground water, or fossil aquifer, to meet her household, industrial, agricultural, and environmental needs. Further, Quality and quantity is also limited due to contaminated toxic chemicals and variability in the distribution, here in Saudi Arabia evaporation is higher than precipitation and makes the country much arid. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia comprises almost 80 percent area of Arabian Peninsula and the world’s 13th largest country. It is situated in arid to hyper-arid climate zone where the temperature, often, reaches up to 540 C in summer. There is the absence of the precipitation except in Asir region, which receives little rainfall during Indian Ocean monsoon season. Moreover, most of the Arabian Peninsular region is associated with tropical high-pressure dry wind systems descending on the poleward sides of Hadley cells and corresponding Westerlies comeing from Ferrell cells descending towards the equator. This air, generally arid in nature due to lack of moisture, intersects between Hadley and Ferrell cells at around 300 latitude in both of hemisphere and impact over whole of Arabian Peninsula and Sahara region. Therefore, evaporation is higher than precipitation and makes this region extremely arid. Moreover, the shift in thermal equator (meteorological equator), due to the thermostatic effect of oceans, also a cause of aridity in this region. The country has not had rivers and lakes from where the supply of water could be ensured. It is a region of world’s largest continuous sand desert, which includes the Great Rub-Al-Khali, Ad-Dhana and An-Nafud deserts. Since the evapo-transpiration in Saudi Arabia is very high (2500-4500 mm per year) due to the harsh and hot climate that restricts the survival of the flora and fauna, it is estimated that the twothird area of the country has only bushes and scrublands. Nevertheless, the Widyan systems are often evident throughout the territory ; those seem to be the only sources of surface water supply and agricultural development in Saudi Arabia. Fertile land is limited in Saudi Arabia and found in alluvium deposits of widyan, oases and basins or near the coastal lands.

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