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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Inde → 2016 → Role of nitric oxide and polyamine in ameliorating drought stress in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition with special reference to biochemical and molecular changes

Banaras Hindu University (2016)

Role of nitric oxide and polyamine in ameliorating drought stress in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition with special reference to biochemical and molecular changes

Pradhan, Navin

Titre : Role of nitric oxide and polyamine in ameliorating drought stress in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition with special reference to biochemical and molecular changes

Auteur : Pradhan, Navin

Université de soutenance : Banaras Hindu University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Résumé partiel
Medicinal plants are valuable sources of medicinal and many other pharmaceutical products. Medicinal and Aromatic plants form a numerically large group of economically important plants which provide basic raw materials for medicines, perfumes, flavours and cosmetics. Medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonoides, steroids etc. which are potential source of drugs. The diabetic pandemic is around the world. Globally in 2013, it estimated that almost 382 million people suffered from diabetes for a prevalence of 8.3% worldwide. It is estimated that about 30 million Indians are presently suffering from diabetes and by 2025 India’s contribution to the diabetic global population would be 89 million. Stevia rebaudiana, (Bertoni), is a perennial herbaceous short day plant of the Asteraceae family. It is indigenous to the Rio Monday Valley of the Amambay mountain region at altitudes between 200 and 500m. Basically it was recognized as an important anti-diabetic medicinal plant. Besides, it is versatile with potentialities like antibacterial, antifungal, antihypersensitive, antihyperglycaemic, anticancerous, useful in treatment of diabetes mellitus, obesity, dental caries prevention, and contraceptive properties, treatment of skin disorders such as healing effect on blemishes, wound cuts and scratches, normalizes blood pressure and regulates heart beat. The viability of stevia seed shows a poor percentage and a very low germination percentage is recorded. Hence, the propagation through seeds is not adequate, due to a very low seed germination percentage. Role of vegetative propagation method is also limited as specific habitat conditions are mandatory to grow the plants in addition to low acclimatization rate in soil. Therefore, a suitable alternative method to prepare sufficient amount of plants within short time duration is the use of in vitro cultures.

Drought is the most severe abiotic stress factor limiting plant growth and crop production. Water deficit is considered as a major environmental factor affecting many aspects of plant physiology and biochemistry. Drought also had negative impact for the growth and development of stevia. Nitric oxide (NO) is an unique volatile molecule in plants with a short lived bioactive free radical molecule, first described as a toxic compound, but now recognized as an important signaling and effector molecule which plays a key role in many physiological processes including pathogen defense, abiotic stress tolerance, growth and development of plants, growth, development, senescence and adaptive responses to multiple stresses. On the other hand, polyamines can also be of great use to enhance stress tolerance in such crop plants. Polyamines are small organic polycations present in all organisms and have a leading role in cell cycle, expression of genes, signaling, plant growth and development and tolerance to a variety of abiotic stresses. High accumulation of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in plants during abiotic stress has been well documented and is correlated with increased tolerance to abiotic stress.

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