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Universitat Politècnica de València (2018)

The Water-Energy-Agriculture nexus in Jordan – A case study on As-Samra wastewater treatment plant in the Lower Jordan River Basin

Belda González, Alberto

Titre : The Water-Energy-Agriculture nexus in Jordan – A case study on As-Samra wastewater treatment plant in the Lower Jordan River Basin

El Nexo Agua-Energía-Agricultura en Jordania Caso de estudio en la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales As-Samra, en la cuenca baja del río Jordán

Auteur : Belda González, Alberto

Université de soutenance : Universitat Politècnica de València

Grade : Máster Universitario en Tecnología energética para el desarrollo Sostenible 2018

Résumé
Historically, water, energy and agricultural resources have been naturally scarce in Jordan, but current economic, demographic, geopolitical and environmental conditions are aggravating the situation. The influxes of refugees are increasing the already high natural population growth ; better economic conditions and living standards are changing consumption and production patterns ; surrounding conflicts affect the supply of resources ; and negative effects associated to climate change can be noticed already. Therefore, nexus thinking as a basis for integrated and cross-sectorial natural resources management is essential to achieve water, energy and food security, and eventually to move towards a sustainable development of the country. To that end, understanding the existing nexus interlinkages is crucial. This document constitutes a first nexus approach focused on water, energy and agriculture (WEA) sectors in Jordan. The research has adopted a case study method based on literature review to consider different contextual factors, and three levels of study were regarded : national level, Lower Jordan River Basin within Jordanian borders level, and As-Samra WWTP level, which has constituted the case study. Based on an extensive literature review that has resulted in an updated analysis of the current Jordanian context, the main WEA nexus interlinkages have been identified at every level of study. Thirteen future alternative pathways have been proposed, their potential impacts on WEA nexus sectors have been investigated, and related indicators to evaluate these impacts have been suggested. Additionally, three combined pathways have been analyzed in detail. In general, results show that interdependencies between WEA sectors at all levels are strong and projected to intensify in the future, and highlight the critical situation of Jordan in terms of resource management. Inefficiencies and unsustainable uses of natural resources stand out as decisive problems that urge to be solved, and future pathways appear to be potentially harmful for the Jordanian system unless they are included in an integrated nexus-based planning.

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