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Accueil du site → Master → Espagne → Humedales artificiales para la gestión de escorrentías urbanas : aplicación al diseño de un piloto demostrativo en el entorno de les Salines de Calp (Alacant)

Universitat Politècnica de València (2020)

Humedales artificiales para la gestión de escorrentías urbanas : aplicación al diseño de un piloto demostrativo en el entorno de les Salines de Calp (Alacant)

Oltra Benavent, Teresa

Titre : Humedales artificiales para la gestión de escorrentías urbanas : aplicación al diseño de un piloto demostrativo en el entorno de les Salines de Calp (Alacant)

Auteur : Oltra Benavent, Teresa

Université de soutenance : Universitat Politècnica de València

Grade : Máster Universitario en Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos 2020

Résumé
The objective of this final master project is to design a Sustainable Drainage System (SUDS), of the artificial wetland type, located in a greenfield area next to Les Salines de Calp (Calp, Alacant). The purpose of this SUDS is triple : to reduce the frequency and volume of urban surface runoffs produced during events of torrential rain towards the salt water lagoon, while improving their quality. This will reduce the environmental impact that these discharges have on the saltwater ecosystem. Les Salines de Calp is one of the few saltwater wetlands adjacent to an urban area in Spain. Its origin comes from the closure of an old bay by a coastal ridge. Les Salines constitute an ecosystem of great natural, social and cultural value. The municipality of Calp has been transformed as a result of tourism. Nowadays, more than half of the municipality is urban area, so the terrain has become waterproof, causing an increase in surface runoff in episodes of rain and the interruption of natural paths for the evacuation of this runoff. Both facts cause floods during the episodes of torrential rain and cause the entrance of contaminated fresh water in Les Salines, introducing sediments and toxic pollutants and decreasing its temperature and salinity, seriously affecting the biodiversity of the ecosystem. Constructed wetlands are an engineered solution based on nature, and their applications include the management of urban runoff in countries with a humid climate. The project consists of designing a constructed wetland for the management of rainwater, which combines the functions of flow lamination and treatment, adapted to a semi-arid climate and the characteristics of Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Therefore, the wetland will be composed of a permanent sheet of salt water, which will reduce the impact on the salinity of the water of Les Salines, in the case of overflows during episodes of torrential rains and prevent the proliferation of mosquitoes. The project will include the characterization of the rainfall patterns in the area, the characterization of the urban catchment and the estimation of the flows and runoff volumes generated towards the constructed wetland, and finally its design. The design will consist of the dimensioning and morphological description of the wetland basins, the implementation in the plot destined for this purpose, a basic budget and a guide for operation and maintenance. In this way, the TFM will contain at least the following points : - Constructed wetlands for urban runoff control : revision of the state of the art. - Background information and description of the problems of the Salines de Calp. - Rainfall Characterization. - Characterization of the urban basin of contribution. - Characterization of the volume and flow regime contributed to the wetland. - Study of alternatives. - Design of the selected alternative. - Basic Operation and Maintenance Guide. - Economic valuation. - Plans The design will be based on aspects of both water quantity management and improvement of the quality of the water discharged into the salt mines, in order to preserve the biodiversity of this site and improve the landscape quality of the urban environment.

Mots Clés  : Escorrentía urbana , Humedal artificial , Sistemas Urbanos de Drenaje Sostenible , Calidad de las aguas , Urban runoff , Constructed wetlands , Sustainable Drainage System , Flood risk management , Water quality

Présentation

Page publiée le 13 février 2021