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Universitat Politècnica de València (2020)

Gestión integrada de Chenopodium album L

Melero Carnero, Nieves

Titre : Gestión integrada de Chenopodium album L

Auteur : Melero Carnero, Nieves

Université de soutenance : Universitat Politècnica de València

Grade : Ingeniería Agroalimentaria y del Medio Rural- 2020

Résumé
Chenopodium album is a very problematic weed in many crops worldwide, whose management and control is very complicated due to its biological characteristics. It can affect many crops, both irrigated and non-irrigated due to its great plasticity and adaptability, in addition to producing large amounts of seed with different germination strategies, which prolongs its persistence in the soil seedbank. It has also developed resistance to many herbicides, with the number 25 being in the classification of weeds that are most resistant to herbicides worldwide, presenting resistance to 4 different modes of action. One of the challenges of agriculture today is to increase agricultural production, while being respectful of the environment. The world population is estimated to reach 9 billion people by 2050. Natural resources, such as available arable land, water and soil, are decreasing. In addition, it is necessary to face climate change, which contributes to the proliferation of different pests, including weeds, Weeds compete with crops for the available resources (water, light and nutrients), and crop yields could decrease by 50% if they are left uncontrolled. For this reason, it is very important to propose crop management strategies respectful of the environment, especially regarding crop protection. The use of herbicides has been the most widely used method for weed control, since its great development in the 1940s, after the Second World War, due to its great efficiency and easy use. But over the years it has been seen that the excessive use of herbicides causes damage to the environment and living beings, as well as promotes the emergence of resistant weed biotypes. It is necessary to adopt new control strategies that are more respectful with the environment. In the European Union, the legislation on the marketing and use of pesticides changed in 2009, to achieve a more sustainable use of them, promoting integrated pest management. In this work, the aim is to explain the problems involved in Chenopodium album management due to its biological characteristics, the problems it can cause in the different crops it can affect, and to propose an integrated weed management strategy, using the different techniques that could be used for its control in a sustainable way. Experiences carried out with different control methods on Chenopodium album will be reviewed and the most successful ones will be recommended, within an integrated weed management strategy.

Mots Clés  : Chenopodium album , Biología , Control , Malas hierbas , Gestión integrada , Weed biology , Weed control. weeds. integrated weed management

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Page publiée le 16 février 2021