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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2020)

Hydrological modelling of the Upper Mara Basin in Kenya

Rahman, Mohammad Atiqur

Titre : Hydrological modelling of the Upper Mara Basin in Kenya

Auteur : Rahman, Mohammad Atiqur

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2020

Résumé partiel
The water resources of the Mara Basin are shared by Kenya and Tanzania. The basin starts from the Mau Forest in Kenya and discharges into the Victoria Lake in Tanzania. There are two protected areas within this basin named Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya and Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. The upper catchment of the Mara Basin consists of two main rivers named Nyangores and Amala. The Mara River receives about 75% of its flow from this upper catchment. The population growth of the Mara Basin is rapid and many people depend on the Mara River for their livelihood. As such, to fulfil the basic human needs, anthropological interventions and economic activities have been increased. This has led to deforestation as well as increased agricultural land with increased water demand. Though the water demand has increased, the available water of the Mara Basin is limited. So, to preserve the ecosystem and to develop different sectors in this area, water resources planning and management is necessary that requires knowledge of water systems behaviour. This study is aimed to develop a distributed hydrological model in Mike-SHE for the upper basin to obtain a better insight into the hydrological responses. A distributed model requires lots of data that is scarce in this area. The quality of the gathered data for this area is also poor with significant missing data. There are four hydrological stations of which one has just been installed recently. The missing discharge data of Bomet Bridge and Kapkimolwa are 31% and 32% respectively. Another station is Chepalungu with no data. Although the channel geometry is one of the main data, only one cross-section is available for each river. The rivers in this area get high groundwater contribution. As the groundwater is calculated from the saturated zone, detailed information of the saturated zone is required which is also not available. A model has been developed in Mike-SHE for this upper catchment. The meteorological and hydrological data has been collected from the Water Resources Authority in Kenya. The soil and land-use data has been collected from the World Soil Information website and FAO-Africover Project respectively and analysed in GIS software.

Sujets  : hydrological modelling Mara River Basin Kenya water resources management


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