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Accueil du site → Master → Pays Bas → 2011 → Microbial quality of drinking water and its effect on health in sub-Saharan Africa : a survey of Njoro Town, Kenya

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2011)

Microbial quality of drinking water and its effect on health in sub-Saharan Africa : a survey of Njoro Town, Kenya

Macharia, P.

Titre : Microbial quality of drinking water and its effect on health in sub-Saharan Africa : a survey of Njoro Town, Kenya

Auteur : Macharia, P.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2011

Résumé partiel
To assess the link between microbiological water quality and incidence of waterborne illnesses in Njoro Town, Kenya, the microbiological quality of drinking water at various water sources, water vendors’ containers and household water storage containers was investigated. A household survey in the township was carried out to investigate the link between household demography, socio-economic status, hygiene and sanitation practices, per capita water consumption and water use pattern. The water quality parameters measured included physico-chemical variables, i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids, and bacteria indicators, i.e. total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Three types of observational epidemiological studies were conducted : Prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study and case control study were carried out to assess the risks associated with consumption of contaminated domestic water was assessed. Households with reported cases of waterborne illnesses were matched with households that did not report illness for both the retrospective and case-control studies based on location, income level, and type of sanitation and water source. Information about travel outside the township, presence of livestock in the household and observation of basic hygiene were obtained to explain the confounding risk factors. Odds Ratios and Relative risks were calculated and River water was observed to pose the greatest risk of illness on exposure with about 400% increased chance of illness if the water quality was poor and no point-of-use treatment was done. Mixing of water from different sources was observed to pose 200-300% increased chance of illness if the quality was poor, household sanitation was poor and no point-of-use treatment was done.

Sujets  : drinking water water quality health risks Kenya Surveys

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Page publiée le 5 avril 2021