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University of Plymouth (2020)

Thermal Efficiency of Courtyards for Residential Buildings in Iraq

Al-Hafith, Omar Arshad

Titre : Thermal Efficiency of Courtyards for Residential Buildings in Iraq

Auteur : Al-Hafith, Omar Arshad

Université de soutenance : University of Plymouth

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2020

Résumé partiel
This thesis investigates adopting the courtyard pattern in Iraq to provide a thermally efficient architectural solution that contributes towards solving the housing challenges in the country. As a result of more than three decades of wars and instability, the country suffers from having a large housing shortage and a major production shortfall. This shortage is estimated at around 1.0 million housing units, which is equivalent to one-quarter of the total housing stock in the country. The current housing production is around 30000 housing units per annum only, which, therefore, does not alleviate the housing needs in the country. The country has developed a new national housing policy and adopted the mass construction of multi-family buildings as an architectural solution towards solving the large quantitative problems. This research aimed to investigate the potential thermal efficiency of courtyards with considering this housing context. To achieve this aim, this research started by investigating the housing context in Iraq. It, then, focussed on the use of courtyards in modern multi-family residential buildings in Iraq, and explored the level of thermal comfort that courtyards can offer to Iraqi residents. The study developed a novel Courtyard Thermal Usability Index (CTUI) to quantify the ability of courtyards to offer a thermally comfortable environment to occupants. CTUI is the fraction of thermally comfortable hours in a courtyard to the total occupation hours during a specific period. To underpin the quantification, the research conducted a thermal comfort survey in Iraq and carried out a series of simulation experiments. The aim of the survey was to determine the thermal comfort limits of Iraqis to be used in judging the thermal efficiency of courtyards. The aim of the simulation was to explore the thermal conditions of courtyards in Iraq. Two simulation tools, Envi-met and IES-VE, were used to determine the thermal conditions across a search space of 360 different courtyard variants. The simulation experiments were conducted for Baghdad and six other Iraqi cities of different climatic conditions

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