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Università Politecnica delle Marche (2013)

Intensificazione dell’olivicoltura : aspetti fisiologici e architetturali

Cioccolanti, Tonino

Titre : Intensificazione dell’olivicoltura : aspetti fisiologici e architetturali

Auteur : Cioccolanti, Tonino

Université de soutenance : Università Politecnica delle Marche

Grade : Dottorato 2013

Résumé
The present global economic and social contest of the agricultural sector, and in particular of the olive production chain, is very competitive and it undergoes to different rules according to each single country (environmental and labour laws). For these reasons, traditional oliviculture (intercropped or specialized) in more developed countries results not economically sustainable because of the low level of mechanization, while it is still remunerative in many countries of the Mediterranean basin (i.e. northern Africa) where costs are lower. In this competition, the identification of new approaches in which olive growing intensification is pivotal for the Italian oliviculture sustainability. A possible answer to this problem can be found in the high-density planting systems. The objective of the present study is to study olive intensification system (also called super high-density plantation, SHD) according to the specific structural, varietal, physiological and architectural characteristics. Regarding the planting systems used in the high-density plantations, several models and materials are suggested, but, as general indication, simple structures are required to train the plants along the row during the early stages of development (not to sustain them). Regarding the physiological aspects, a field comparison of micropapagated olives and cuttings (cv Arbequina) has been carried out to study juvenility/vigour characteristics due to propagation system, plant and branch architectural models and onset of production. Results showed that micropropagated plants had higher vigour with a better ramification and canopy conic shape, but a higher variability among plants. Thus it can be hypothesized that an early ex vitro selection would help a lot to increase plantlets standards. The second series of studies in Italian field conditions showed that the most suited architectural models for olive SHD are characterized by high ramification and flower differentiation. Among the international and national spread cultivars that are strongly recommended for high-density plantations Arbequina and Koroneiki have these requisites. While other cultivars were not strictly suitable for such kind of planting systems (SHD). The same study has been also developed in new-planted olive groves to characterise local spread cultivars (Marche Region). Preliminary results confirmed that some local olive germplasm can be suitable for super-high density plantation or at least comparable with international cultivars (i.e. Arbequina), but specific cultural practices must be studied more deeply according to specific pedo-climatic conditions and cultivar-specific growth habit.

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Page publiée le 2 mai 2021