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University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (2005)

Evaluation of a Mini Core Set of Germplasm in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Yugandhar Gokidi

Titre : Evaluation of a Mini Core Set of Germplasm in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Auteur : Yugandhar Gokidi

Université de soutenance : University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad

Grade : Master of Science (MS) in Genetics and Plant Breeding 2005

Groundnut breeding programmes have mainly used elite breeding lines and cultivars leading to narrow-genetic base. Lack of proper characterization and evaluation is the major reason for limited use of germplasm. Extensive evaluation of core collections facilitates better access to germplasm for use in crop improvement. A minicore subset of world germplasm comprising 188 accessions was evaluated for morphological and agronomic characteristics to estimate phenotypic diversity and to identify potential germplasm for crop improvement. Seven morphological descriptors viz., stem hairiness, branching pattern, leaf let shape, seed colour, pod beak, pod constriction and pod reticulation and 6 agronomical traits viz., yield per plant, shelling percentage, sound mature kernel, test weight, late leaf spot and protein content contributed significantly to multivariate polymorphism. Shannon-Weaver diversity index revealed more diversity for pod reticulation and stem pigmentation in Valencia ; pod reticulation and leaf let shape in Virginia runner ; pod beak, pod constriction, pod reticulation and flower colour in Virginia bunch and Aspergillus seed colonization in spanish bunch and Virginia bunch. The accessions ICG 1862, 3240 and 12697 for yield, ICG 5662, 6027, 8760 and 9777 for test weight, ICG 13787 and ICG 14985 for resistance to Aspergillus and ICG 6027 and ICG 11088 for low lectin activity were found significantly superior for different traits. The material was also subjected to RAPD assay using twenty primers to assess molecular diversity. The polymorphism per primer ranged from 57 to 100 percent. The genetic similarity (Sij) ranged from 0.21 to 0.93. Some accessions with diverse DNA profiles (ICG 8760 with ICG 442, 1274, 6402 and GPBD-4 with ICG 2381 and ICG 1274 with ICG 12189) were identified for mapping and genetic enhancement in groundnut.

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