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Shendi University (2020)

Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Basic Schools at Almatama Locality, River Nile State, Sudan

Hamed, Monzer Alzepar Saleh

Titre : Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Basic Schools at Almatama Locality, River Nile State, Sudan

Auteur Hamed, Monzer Alzepar Saleh

Université de soutenance : Shendi University

Grade : Ph.D. Degree in Public Health (Environmental Health) 2020

Résumé
Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) is every human’s and child’s right. Ensuring WASH accessibility in schools is encompassed in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals. Drinking water is a key environmental factor, which can have both positive and negative impacts on human health. A descriptive cross-sectional school’s based study was conducted at Almatamma locality in basic schools aimed to assess the water, sanitation, and hygiene situation in basic schools during the period from December 2017 till May 2020. All schools (117) were involved in a baseline survey by a questionnaire designed according to UNICEF guideline for school WASH assessment. Regarding school information, water quality and quantity, sanitation facilities, and 60 drinking water samples were selected and collected from the different water sources for all school for analysis of water quality . The study revealed 77% of school did not have hand-washing facilities according to standard, 95% of schools have toilets but it is not meet the required ratio of pupils per toilets, 80% of them were pit latrine which is considered not safe for the student. There is a statistically significant relationship between the schools have parent-teachers association, and schools have a link with the community, and other organization (PV= 0.000).Seventy one percentage of schools have a water source functional at the time of visit but it is not functional continuously. 5% of schools treat drinking water from the sources. Physiochemical parameters of water samples for Conductivity, PH, TDS, Ca, Mg, Na, F, Cl, SO4, K, No3, No2, within the level of the permissible limit. Water total iron concentration, total Hardness and degree of turbidity above the level of the permissible limit. The bacteriological quality of 81% water samples are poor and exceeded the permissible limit of the WHO and Sudanese Standard for drinking. The study findings lead to a conclusion that basic schools in the Almatmma locality are in poor status of water, sanitation, and hygiene. Therefore we recommend to establish guidelines and systems to follow-up, monitoring, and evaluation of the school WASH program and encourage the effort of the community and civilian organization in support of the WASH activities in the basic schools.

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