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University of Namibia (2019)

Evaluation of indigenous Namibian mushrooms and plants for antimalarial properties

Kadhila, Nailoke Pauline

Titre : Evaluation of indigenous Namibian mushrooms and plants for antimalarial properties

Auteur : Kadhila, Nailoke Pauline

Université de soutenance  : University of Namibia

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2019

Résumé partiel
Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium species and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The disease is currently ranked high among the most problematic infectious diseases around the world. Despite the significant progress that has been made toward reducing the global burden of malaria, it remains one of the most significant public health threats in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the developing world. Current malaria control measures have adverse environmental and human effects. The synthetic repellents used for controlling vectors are causing irreversible damage to the ecosystem since the chemicals are non-degradable in nature. The current antimalarial drugs are also facing the specter of parasite resistance, hence the need to discover novel drugs from natural products. The overall objective of the study was to perform bioassay-guided fractionation and determine the antiplasmodial activities, phytochemical profiles, active compounds and cytotoxicities of mushroom and plant extracts. The study involved an ethnobotanical survey of putative antimalarial mushrooms and plants. Preparation of mushroom and plant organic extracts ; evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of the extracts using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay ; verification of phytochemical profiles (saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, coumarins, alkaloids, and flavonoids) using standard procedures ; elucidation of active antiplasmodial compounds using Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and determination of cytotoxicity using the (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) method. Four mushroom and thirteen plant species used in this study were collected from north-central Namibian regions namely Kavango East, Kavango West, Ohangwena, and Oshikoto. Of these, only two plants were active against 3D7 strains of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

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