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University of Debrecen (2019)

Effect of nitrogen supply on the quality parameters and food industrial utilization of common millet and grain sorghum

Jevcsák, Szintia

Titre : Effect of nitrogen supply on the quality parameters and food industrial utilization of common millet and grain sorghum

Nitrogén-ellátás hatása a termesztett köles és szemescirok minőségi paramétereire és élelmiszeripari hasznosíthatóságára

Auteur : Jevcsák, Szintia

Université de soutenance : University of Debrecen

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2019

Résumé partiel
Nowadays, there is an increase in the interest for alternative grains worldwide and as well in Hungary because of the extreme weather conditions. The advantage of these crops are their excellent drought tolerance and resistance against unfavourable environment conditions. Sorghum and millet are characterized by these beneficial properties. The previous researches focused on the yield and mineral intake information of these cereals mostly, so the main aim of this scientific work was pointed to the evaluation of changes of different quality and parameters under different nutrient supply. For our research it was very important to know conditions of plant production, therefore the analysed samples were from an experiment was set up at the Karcag Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Institute for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm in 2016 and 2017. In the research two proso millet varieties, „Maxi” and „Lovászpatonai pirosmagvú” and sorghum hybrid „Zádor” were examined. Weather conditions were different in this two examined years, which was advantage for us because we could compare the changes of nutrient composition in two disparate years. The fertilizer used in the experiment was CAN and rates were the following : 0 (non-fertilized control), 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg/ha. Thousand kernel weight, moisture content, ash content, protein content, starch content were determined and we laid a special emphasis on the evaluation of starch composition : the amylose/amylopectin ratio, starch damage and resistant starch content of samples. Moreover, fat content, fatty acid composition, total dietary fibre content, polyphenol content and mineral content of flour samples were also analysed. The effect of increasing N rates and the connection between the different varieties and the fertilizer doses were evaluated. The thousands kernel weight of samples were higher in 2016, when the amount of precipitation was also higher than in 2017. The increasing N fertilizer rates increased the protein content of samples. The protein content of „Maxi” millet ranged between 9,72 ± 0,15% and 11,71 ± 0,22%. In „Lovászpatonai pirosmagvú” millet the protein content increased from 11,69 ± 0,78% to 12,43 ± 0,46% in 2016. The protein content was generally higher for both variety in 2017. The protein content in control flour samples were the lowest in hybrid „Zádor”, which value was 8,09 ± 0,16%. The highest value was in samples fertilized with N of 200 kg/ha in the first examined year. Protein content of samples treated with nitrogen fertilizer was higher (9,10% - 9,34%) compared to the control sample (8,91%). The differences between the starch content, starch composition, starch damage and resistant starch content of flour samples did not reach a significant level. These parameters could not be changed considerably due to fertilization in this case, therefore these properties will be stable under different conditions. Significant differences were found in fat content of both millet varieties due to the influence of various nitrogen levels in both years. Also significant differences were found in fat content under the effect of fertilizer doses and fertilization-variety interaction in 2017. In the case of sorghum flour samples, differences were found in fat content in the first examined year only. Mots Clés :

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Page publiée le 19 mai 2021