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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2010 → Development of a groundwater flow model for water resources management at the development area west of the Rosetta branch, Egypt

Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (2016)

Development of a groundwater flow model for water resources management at the development area west of the Rosetta branch, Egypt

Wassef, Raafat Samuel

Titre : Development of a groundwater flow model for water resources management at the development area west of the Rosetta branch, Egypt

Auteur : Wassef, Raafat Samuel

Université de soutenance : Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Grade : Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. rer. nat.) 2010

Résumé partiel
The issue of population growth is one of the most important national problems confronting the Egyptian government. The current population of Egypt is approximately 83 million with an annual increase of about 1.8 million children. If the population continues to increase at the current rates, it is expected to reach 118 million by the year 2030 and 161 million by the year 2050. On the other hand, the agricultural area is about 4% of the total area of Egypt and the per capita agricultural land is only about 2.8 carats (490 m²). Not only is there a need to decrease the rate of population increase, but there is also parallel need to increase the agricultural area and fight the desertification phenomena in Egypt. The limited availability of renewable fresh water in the groundwater aquifers in Egypt is a significant sign of the need for scientific research that studies the management of water resources. The regional area of interest in this study locates in the West of the Rosetta branch between longitudes 29° 30’ and 31° 15’ E and latitudes 30° 00’ and 31° 30’ N. It occupies an area of about 15 000 km² bounded by the Mediterranean Sea from the north and the Rosetta branch from the East. The surface of this area is characterised by a network of surface water main canals such as the Rosetta branch, the El-Rayah El-Behery, the El Mahmoudia canal, the El-Rayah El-Nasery, and the El-Noubarya canal, which together with the surplus water from irrigation are considered the main rechargers of the groundwater aquifer systems. The subsurface of the study area is differentiated into aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes. Up to 1000 m below sea level, the study area consists of three explicit aquifer systems that were created in three different epochs. The Moghra aquifer was created in the Miocene Epoch and consists of coarse sand and gravel with intercalation of sandstone and clay. The Wadi El-Natron basin was created in the Pliocene Epoch and it is made up of alternating sand and clay with limestone at the top. Lastly, the Delta aquifer was created in the Pleistocene Epoch and consists of graded sand and gravel intercalated by clay lenses, with a large part of it is covered with a thin, semi-pervious, silty clay layer. The extraction of groundwater grows rapidly along with the expansion of the irrigational-, industrial-, and urbanized activities in the desert especially in many locations along both sides of the Cairo-Alexandria Highway where groundwater is heavily exploited.

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