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Universität Potsdam (2020)

Drought tolerance prediction of potato by automatic phenotyping of morphological and physiological traits

Gedif Mulugeta Aneley

Titre : Drought tolerance prediction of potato by automatic phenotyping of morphological and physiological traits

Vorhersage von Trockentoleranz in Kartoffel durch automatische Phänotypisierung morphologischer und physiologischer Eigenschaften

Auteur : Gedif Mulugeta Aneley

Université de soutenance : Universität Potsdam

Grade : Doctor rerum naturalium 2020

Résumé
Potato is the 4th most important food crop in the world. Especially in tropical and sub-tropical potato production, drought is a yield limiting factor. Potato is sensitive to water stress. Potato yield loss under water stress could be reduced by using tolerant varieties and adjusted agronomic practices. Direct selection for yield under water-stressed conditions requires long selection cycles. Thus, identification of markers for marker-assisted selection may speed up breeding. The objective of this thesis is to identify morphological markers for drought tolerance by continuously monitoring plant growth and canopy temperature with an automatic phenotyping system. The phenotyping was performed in drought-stress experiments that were conducted in population A with 64 genotypes and population B with 21 genotypes in the screenhouse in 2015 and 2016 (population A) and in 2017 and 2018 (population B). Drought tolerance was quantified as deviation of the relative tuber starch yield from the experimental median (DRYM) and parent median (DRYMp). Relative tuber starch yield is starch yield under drought stress relative to the average starch yield of the respective cultivar under control conditions in the same experiment. The specific DRYM value was calculated based on the yield data of the same experiment or the global DRYM that was calculated from yield data derived from data combined over yeas of respective population or across multiple experiments including VALDIS and TROST experiments (2011-2016). Analysis of variance found a significant effect of genotype on DRYM indicating that the tolerance variation required for marker identification was given in both populations. Canopy growth was monitored continuously six times a day over five to ten weeks by a laser scanner system and yielded information on leaf area, plant height and leaf angle for population A and additionally on leaf inclination and light penetration depth for population B. Canopy temperature was measured 48 times a day over six to seven weeks by infrared thermometry in population B. From the continuous IRT surface temperature data set, the canopy temperature for each plant was selected by matching the time stamp of the IRT data with laser scanner data.

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