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University of Belgrade (2018)

Environmental factors in international relations - case study of Maghreb countries

Darduri, Zainab

Titre : Environmental factors in international relations - case study of Maghreb countries

Ekološki činioci u međunarodnim odnosima - studija slučaja zemalja Magreba

Auteur : Darduri, Zainab

Université de soutenance  : University of Belgrade

Grade : Doctoral disertation 2018

Résumé
At the beginning of this century many Maghreb countries are dealing with similar problems regarding their environmental protection and sustainable development. First, they have to adopt to climate changes. Three decades ago, an increase in air temperature of almost 2˚C has been recorded in many countries in north Africa, and it has affected to other environmental factors such as drop in rainfall, increasing of sea level and water scarcity, pollution of resources, reduction of biodiversity and arable land, desertification, etc. Due to increased water scarcity, pollution of water, air and other resources many Maghreb countries are facing with increased number of illnesses and deaths especially in Mauritania and Morocco. According to those environmental changes, Maghreb countries have economic and political consequences such as damages caused by natural disasters, restoration of polluted water resources, implementation environmental policies due to international agreements and conventions, strengthening institutions and improving cooperation. Political consequences also include environmental migration, as well as the outbreak of conflicts for water and other scarce resources in the countries of the Maghreb. Although some Magreb countries have taken certain measures for environmental protection such as projects for reforestation to prevent desertification in Mauritania and Morocco, or restoring vegetation in the steppes of Algeria, we point out the cooperation with EU such as EUROMED. EUROMED represents Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Projects in different areas - economic, environmental, energy, health, migration, and culture. Some of the projects of EUROMED include cleaning the pollution of the Mediterranean Sea, including coastal and marine protected areas ; joint civil protection programs for the prevention, preparation and response to natural and disasters caused by human activities ; and others. The European Union and the United States have increased diplomatic activities in the countries of the Maghreb, after the demonstrations known as the Arab Spring, has spilled over from Tunisia in 2011 to other countries and led to mass protests in Algeria, or a change of government in Tunisia and Libya, but also to spread unrest and violence in Egypt and the Middle East. In this work we have studied the organization of the African Union and regional economic communities such as the Community countries Sahel-Sahara (CEN-SAD), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Intergovernmental Authority for Development (Intergovernmental Authority on development - IGAD) and the other, with the aim of promoting regional integration and cooperation in economic development, environmental, food safety and sustainable development in Africa. Regarding programs and activities of the United Nations specialized agencies in the countries of the Maghreb, we pointed out many UNEP and FAO projects, programmes and annual reports regarding environmental protection and sustainable development, or capacity building such as Committee on Food Security and Sustainable Development, and The African Climate Policy Centre by UN Economic Commission for Africa – UNECA, and many others.

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