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Northwest A&F University (2020)

Effects of Farmland Mulching Patterns on Main Soil Properties and Maize Growth in Different Dryland Areas

黄方园

Titre : Effects of Farmland Mulching Patterns on Main Soil Properties and Maize Growth in Different Dryland Areas

Auteur : 黄方园

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2020

Université : Northwest A&F University

Résumé partiel
Dryland farming plays an indispensable role in ensuring global food security.However,the scarcity of precipitation and large spatial and temporal variability seriously threaten the sustainability of agricultural production in the dryland farming.Farmland mulching technology,especially plastic film mulching practice,has been widely used in dryland crop production.However,the key production resources(solar radiation,thermal and precipitation)vary greatly in different dryland areas,and the yield increase effect of farmland mulching technology will also be affected by regional climatic factors.Therefore,appropriate farmland mulching patterns according to the regional characteristics can improve the utilization rate of resources and farmland productivity,and promote the sustainable development of agriculture in dryland regions.Therefore,in this study,different mulching treatments have been set up for several years in the semi-arid(Pengyang,Ningxia Province)and semi-humid(Yangling,Shaanxi Province)areas of the Loess Plateau in China:1)ridge-furrow planting pattern(R),2)flat planting pattern with full plastic-film mulch(P),3)flat planting pattern with full biodegradable film mulch(B),4)flat planting pattern with full straw mulch(S)and 5)traditional flat planting(CK),the effects of different farmland cover measures on soil moisture(SM),soil temperature(ST),soil carbon and nitrogen nutrients,soil microbial community structure,and crop productivity were studied.The main results obtained are as follows :(1)Effect of different farmland mulching patterns on soil moisture and soil temperatureDifferent mulching patterns significantly affected soil temperature,and the differences between treatments gradually decreased with the development of the growth process.In the semi-arid area,the three mulching treatments all showed obvious warming effect,which was shown as P>B>R.In the semi-humid area,the average soil temperature of 0-25 cm during the whole growth period of P and R treatment increased 3.1 ?C and 0.6 ?C compared with CK.The S treatment in the two experimental areas had obvious cooling effect throughout the growing period,and the cooling effect on the soil was more obvious in the semi-arid area.Different farmland mulching patterns all had a certain moisture conservation effect in the fallow period,but it affected by different experimental regions and the precipitation patterns,the P treatment had the best water storage effect during the fallow period in the two experimental areas.In addition,the mulching treatments of the two experimental areas can effectively improve the soil water content in the early growth stage,with the development of growth period,due to the increase of biomass and plant transpiration,the mulching treatments promoted the utilization of deep soil moisture by crops in the middle stage of growth,while the surface soil water content has risen again in the late growth stage.The farmland water consumption(ET)during period of the mulching treatment showed a pattern of“low before-high middle-low after”.S treatment maintained higher soil water content than CK throughout the growth period at the two experimental areas.In addition,the ET of P treatment was the highest in the semi-arid area,and its average ET was 44.5 mm,44.1 mm,65.5 mm and 59.9 mm higher than R,B,S and CK,respectively.The ET order of each treatment was P>S>R>CK in the semi-humid area.(2)Effect of continuous mulching on soil carbon and nitrogen nutrientsContinuous mulching has different effects on soil total nitrogen(TN)and soil organic carbon(SOC)content under different mulching patterns.The TN content of the surface soil(0-20 cm)showed a gradually decreasing trend in the two experimental areas,and the plastic film(R and P)and biodegradable(B)treatments had the largest decreasing rate,followed by S and CK treatment.However,the SOC content of the surface soil under P,B and S mulching in the semi-arid area site increased slightly,while that in R and CK decreased by 0.03 and0.04 g kg-1 respectively,but they were not significantly different from that before the field trial.In the semi-humid area,except for S treatment,the SOC content of the other treatments all decreased in other two soil layers(0-20 cm and 20-40 cm)

Mots clés : farmland mulching; semi-arid area; semi-humid area; soil microbial community; soil water and temperature; maize productivity;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 10 juin 2021, mise à jour le 22 octobre 2021