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Stanford University (2020)

Human-environment dynamics in the eco-epidemiology of schistosomiasis (lower basin of the Senegal River)

Lund, Andrea

Titre : Human-environment dynamics in the eco-epidemiology of schistosomiasis (lower basin of the Senegal River)

Auteur : Lund, Andrea

Université de soutenance  : Stanford University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2020

Résumé
Human schistosomiasis is parasitic disease that affects 200 million people worldwide and is second only to malaria in the global burden of parasitic disease. The transmission of human schistosomes occurs between people and freshwater snails. People become infected by being in contact with the water. The occurrence of schistosomiasis is often elevated in settings with dam or irrigation infrastructure, which creates suitable snail habitat, but also alters the ways in which people interact with their environment. This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how social and environmental factors interact to perpetuate schistosome transmission in the lower basin of the Senegal River, a dammed landscape where schistosomiasis has become endemic. I use qualitative and quantitative data collected from focus group discussions as well as household and parasitological surveys in 16 villages to understand how socio-environmental circumstances influence exposure to and contribute to risk for schistosome infection and its associated morbidities. First, I examine local perspectives of schistosomiasis risk in the environment and reported preventive behaviors. Second, I investigate whether land use at the household level influences risk for infection. And finally, I evaluate the relative contributions of three components of risk — exposure, hazard and vulnerability — in the acquisition and accumulation of schistosome infection. Results highlight the need for environmental interventions that complement existing pharmaceutical-based schistosomiasis control efforts

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