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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Algérie → 2018 → Etude de la diversité morphophysiologique, biochimique, moléculaire, de rendement et de croisement de deux cultivars de blé dur cultivés en Algérie (Triticum durumDes).

Université des Frères Mentouri (Constantine 1) 2018

Etude de la diversité morphophysiologique, biochimique, moléculaire, de rendement et de croisement de deux cultivars de blé dur cultivés en Algérie (Triticum durumDes).

شهیلي, فطیمة الزهراء

Titre : Etude de la diversité morphophysiologique, biochimique, moléculaire, de rendement et de croisement de deux cultivars de blé dur cultivés en Algérie (Triticum durumDes).

 : دراسة التنوع المرفوفیزیولوجي، البیوكمیائي، الجزیئي، المحصول وتصالب صنفین من القمح الصلب المنزرع بالجزائر).(Triticum durumDes

Auteur : شهیلي, فطیمة الزهراء

Université de soutenance : Université des Frères Mentouri (Constantine 1)

Grade : Doctorat (Biologie et Ecologie végétale) 2018

Résumé
The study was conducted during three agricultural campaigns 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2016/2017 in two stations, one at the wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi and the other at the Technical Institute of Field Crops (ITGC) from Khroub to Constantine. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the difference among 20 genotypes of two varieties, circumflexumand melanopus, belonging to durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown in Algeria, based on certain morphophysiological characteristics and yield. In addition, the parents were subjected to hybridizations to obtain first generation individuals, in order to determine the diversity of inter and intra varietal genotypes, thus the development of the most productive genotypes. Also, a biochemical and molecular study was carried out to determine the degree of relationship of the studied genotypes and hybrids obtained. The results obtained by multivariate statistical analyzes showed that there is a diversity among the studied genotypes from the morphological measurements and the yield. The genotypes cir9, mel1, mel6, mel2, mel5, mel6, mel10, cir7 and cir10 record the highest values from morphological parameters and grain yield during the three agricultural campaigns. The cir4, cir8, cir6, mel6, mel4 and cir5 genotypes had high relative moisture content during the two agricultural campaigns 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 and the mel1, cir4, mel3, mel9 and cir8 genotypes during the agricultural campaigns 2016/2017. Total protein analysis by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) during the three agricultural campaigns of the 30 selected genotypes of the two varieties circumflexum, melanopus and six hybrids revealed a remarkable polymorphism of 66.66 and 83.33%, respectively. . The hierarchical classification distinguished different groups. Total protein can be used to determine genetic differences in durum wheat populations. The molecular analysis by the technique (PCR -HRM) permited the separation of 30 selected genotypes of the two varieties circumflexum and melanopus, using four SSR primers. This technique allowed to highlight inter and intra varietal variability according to the degree of DNA fusion. During the agricultural campaign 2013/2014 the mel1, mel2 and mel10 genotypes form a single homogeneous group for both primers Xwms47 and Xwms46, and two genotypes cir9 and cir10 were classified in the same group for the primer Xwms46 during the agricultural campaign 2014/2015, but the third agricultural campaign 2016/2017 has classified two genotypes cir10 and mel9 in the same group for the two primers Xwms46 and Xwms499.

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