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Minjiang University (2021)

Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Commercial Rooftop Photovoltaic Systems for Water Purification in Karachi

Muhammad Sulaiman Tiwana

Titre : Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Commercial Rooftop Photovoltaic Systems for Water Purification in Karachi

Auteur : Muhammad Sulaiman Tiwana

Grade : Master 2021

Université : Minjiang University

Résumé
Karachi is currently facing two prominent issues,water scarcity and energy shortfall.This affects not only the quality of life but also commercial and industrial sectors of the city,which is the financial hub,biggest taxpayer and the most populous city of Pakistan.Thus,some consumers in Karachi,the capital of Sindh,are applying solar photovoltaic(PV)systems to pursuing both generation of power and creating drinkable water for themselves as well as other customers.In such case,they are named as prosumers.Apparently,their businesses are beneficial for not only producing and reserving energy,but also accessing drinkable water.However,knowledge about the profitability of these systems is limited even in Pakistan,needless to say in the world.This study attempts to focus on small and medium enterprise commercial users of utility and makes an economic assessment of small-scale commercial PV systems in Karachi using a case study.It is basically a residential solar standalone PV system with integrated reverse osmosis(RO)plant for water purification.In the study,an introduction is made at first mainly on the energy and water situation in Pakistan.Secondly,literature review is conducted,covering Reverse Osmosis plants powered by solar PV systems,solar technology in Pakistan,and economic analysis of PV systems,and renewable energy policies supporting PV system development in the country are summarized.Thirdly,a case study of Karachi is presented,describing the solar system plant site,technicalities of the PV system,RO plant specifications,and characteristics of the business energy demand and business operation.Fourthly,the methodology based on such indicators as net present value(NPV),internal rate of return(IRR)and payback period(PBP),is elaborated to evaluate the solar powered reverse osmosis plant economically.Fifthly,the outcomes of the study are given,scenario analysis,sensitivity analysis,and discussion are conducted,and profitability of the project in 9major cities in Pakistan is discussed.Finally,a conclusion is drawn,and policy implications are briefed.The results show that the NPV,IRR and PBP of the case studied are PKR 6,500,440.5,97.6% and1 year 2 months respectively.Apparently,the project is economically viable as the NPV and IRR are high while the PBP is quite low.The scenario analysis reveals that both in the absence and in the presence of the supporting policies,the project is profitable due to the existing policies regarding renewable energy in Pakistan isn’t to the extent to which consumers can get signal benefit,which is the reason of slow development of PV in the country.The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of the project is only sensitive to initial cost and discount rate.Additionally,it is found that the profitability in the 9 major cities in Pakistan is basically as good as that in Karachi.The potential market demand in these cities is estimated to be 270 solar PV systems to cater 3 million population.The conclusion is that small-scale commercial rooftop PV systems for water purification are economically viable in Karachi,as well as the 9 major cities in Pakistan.If the government provides incentives or subsidies to the investors,such projects will become more successful and popular.The study contributes firstly to providing a cost-effective solution for solving the drinkable water shortage in urban cities of Pakistan lacking either proper infrastructure or due to the drought seasons.Then it contributes to helping the prosumers realize revenue from the drinkable water and electricity sales,cost savings of energy,and tax credits.Finally,it contributes to helping the society reduce the pressure on the demand of energy and the impact on the environment.

Mots clés : commercial solar photovoltaic system ;water purification ;economic analysis ;supporting policy ;Karachi;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 18 novembre 2021