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Universität Hohenheim (2020)

Challenges of sustainable wastewater management in Pakistan : a case study of Faisalabad

Jabeen, Saima

Titre : Challenges of sustainable wastewater management in Pakistan : a case study of Faisalabad

Herausforderungen des Nachhaltigen Abwassermanagements in Pakistan : eine Fallstudie von Faisalabad

Auteur : Jabeen, Saima

Université de soutenance : Universität Hohenheim

Grade : Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften‖ (Dr. sc. agr./Ph.D. in Agricultural Sciences) 2020

Résumé partiel
For several decades, achieving global development goals that reflect community needs has been the focus of development and conservation approaches ; currently, special attention has been paid to water- and sanitation-related goals. Sustainable wastewater management, a target under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6, 6.3) has fostered a debate on its complex role in sustainable development. Exploring the gaps between the real situation and the proposed one regarding sustainable wastewater management (zero pollution) would guide the developing world towards the right steps for improvements in the water and sanitation sector. Gaps exist in the literature about sustainable wastewater management, particularly with reference to developing countries. Against this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the challenges in sustainable wastewater management in Pakistan, more specifically in Faisalabad. These challenges, which require the attention of policymakers in Pakistan, include the following : untreated dumping of wastewater (domestic or industrial) ; overexploitation of groundwater ; lacking clean drinking water and sanitation facilities ; a weak legal framework to prosecute polluters ; governance challenges in administrative agencies ; and public health concerns. The study was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Faisalabad is located in a semiarid region and is facing water scarcity issues. Industrial development, particularly in the textile sector, and rapid urbanization within this region, are posing threats to groundwater sources (due to intensive pumping), surface water sources (due to untreated dumping of wastewater), human health, and the environment (due to untreated reuse of wastewater). While these problems are widely recognized, there are major knowledge gaps on how to address them so as to ensure a sustainable wastewater management. The case study examines four main aspects of wastewater management : the interaction of wastewater with human health and the environment, existing formal rules for wastewater management, the institutional framework that governs wastewater management, and future development schemes and policies for better management. The first objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of poor wastewater management on the community and natural resources (at the micro-level). For this purpose, wastewater-irrigated areas were selected. The second goal was to evaluate gaps in the legal framework of wastewater management in Faisalabad. Identifying the challenges in urban wastewater management in Faisalabad was the third objective. The last objective was to review the current and potential future policy interventions within the context of the study area. Applying a case study design, this in-depth study explored the role of all stakeholders (administrative departments, individuals, industrialist, wastewater irrigators, etc.) linked with wastewater management. A multiphase data collection approach using mixed methods was used for the in-depth investigation. A framework was developed, which enabled the researcher to evaluate the current state of wastewater management and to identify the gaps to achieve sustainable wastewater management. The first phase of data collection comprised a household survey and a chemical analysis of soil, irrigation water and groundwater across three categories of different sources of irrigation water : industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and canal water. Data was collected in the peri-urban areas of Faisalabad. The household survey data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, statistical comparative analysis, and econometric analysis techniques. For the review of the current legal framework, desk research was carried out with the aim to critically analyze regulations, based on secondary sources. The second phase of data collection incorporated qualitative data collection tools, specifically in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a participatory mapping tool called net-mapping. These data collected from diverse stakeholders were evaluated using a content analysis approach to explore and identify the challenges in wastewater management. The institutional analysis was based on a conceptual framework, which was derived from the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework. In addition to institutional analysis, historical developments of institutions (historical institutionalism approach) and their governance failures (discourse analysis of newspaper articles) were also analyzed. Finally, on this basis, possible policies to improve the current situation of wastewater management in Faisalabad were derived.

Mots clés  : Sustainable Natural Resource Management , Wastewater , Institutional Analysis , Mixed Methods , Wastewater Irrigation

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Page publiée le 16 novembre 2021