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Universität Hamburg (2020)

Conflict, Climate Change and Migration in the Lake Chad Basin with Focus on Resource Scarcity and Insecurity in Northeast Nigeria

Kogoui Kamta, Frederic Noel

Titre : Conflict, Climate Change and Migration in the Lake Chad Basin with Focus on Resource Scarcity and Insecurity in Northeast Nigeria

Konflikt, Klimawandel und Migration im Tschadsee-Becken mit Fokus auf Ressourcenknappheit und Unsicherheit im Nordosten Nigerias

Auteur : Kogoui Kamta, Frederic Noel

Université de soutenance : Universität Hamburg

Grade : Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften 2020

Résumé partiel
The impacts of climate change are felt worldwide and manifest differently in various parts of the globe. While extreme weather events such as monsoons, hurricanes, torrential rains, wildfires, droughts and heat waves with the resulting impacts on human lives and settlements are common, climate change also manifests in slow onset events such as sea level rise, increasing temperatures, ocean acidification, glacial retreat, salinization, land and forest degradation, loss of biodiversity, and desertification. It is found by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that the adverse effects of slow onset events are already affecting developing countries, resulting in loss of fertile land and the scarcity of water resources. In many parts of developing countries where farming constitutes the main livelihood and source of income, changes in the natural environment and in the distribution and availability of water resources may induce social disturbances that may range from migration to social instability and even violent conflicts. Lake Chad Basin and Northeast Nigeria in particular are seen as a climate hot spot partially due to the high variability of precipitations in the region. The Lake Chad that offers livelihood to millions of people in the region has been highly affected by climate change, losing up to 90% of its size between the early 1960s and today. Political issues have also emerged in the region with the birth of the islamist insurgent group Boko Haram in 2009. Since then, social structures have been highly disturbed, with millions of people leaving their homes in search of safety and the fulfilment of their basic needs, therefore becoming Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in their countries or crossing the border to become refugees in neighbouring countries. While the insurgency of the Boko Haram group and the response by various governments of the Lake Chad region including Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger may seem to be the main cause of migration in the region, understanding migration in the Lake Chad Basin is made complex for a few reasons : on the one hand, the link between conflict and migration is easily made by conflict experts ; on the other hand, environmental scientists easily establish a correlation between environmental degradation and migration. Meanwhile, conflict and environmental degradation have not been treated simultaneously as causes of migration.

Mots clés  : Conflict, Climate Change and Migration in the Lake Chad Basin with Focus on Resource Scarcity and Insecurity in Northeast Nigeria

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Page publiée le 16 novembre 2021