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Tokyo University of Agriculture (2016)

Study on Effective Utilization of Irrigation Water in Afghanistan

SHAMS Hayat Khan

Titre : Study on Effective Utilization of Irrigation Water in Afghanistan

Auteur : SHAMS Hayat Khan

Université de soutenance : Tokyo University of Agriculture

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2016

Descriptif
Afghanistan has arid, semi- arid climate . Literall y it has thousands of microclimates, where frequentl y conditions change from one valle y to another, within a fairl y s hort distance. Afghanistan has slopp y, high altitude hill as well as flat plains in other regions of the countr y. The change in al titude produce a climate with temperate and semi tropical characteristics, wide spreading temperatures variations are usual from season to season and from day to night. Summer temperatures are high with high evaporation rate and winter is cold with freez in g condition. Afghanistan is an arid countr y, with more than half of the area receiving 100 to 300 mm precipitation per ye ar, which mostly occurs in winter season with no agricultural activities. Afghanistan is rich in water resources, the main surface resources being Amu Dar ya basin, North river basin, Hari Rud river basin, Helmand river basin, and Kabul river basin. Surface water is estimated at 57BCM, and at present just 17BCM is used, and ground water is 18 BCM, and 3BCM is used. About 15% of Afghanistan ’s irrigated land gets water from traditional underground s ystems such as karez , spring and shallow well. Irrigation s ystem in Afghanistan is divided into two division : informal and formal. Afghanistan is facing water management challenges, the irrigation water management is done through communit y based irrigation management s ys tem known as Mirab s ystem. The Mirab s ystem is not good in equit y issues especiall y in irriga tion water distribution. There is great difference in the water rights and actual water d istribution among the users. More than 80 % of people leaves in different agro c limate and topograph y of the land engaged in agriculture and livestock, the y have cultivated 2.72 million hectares under irrigation, and the econom y of these people is directl y or indirectl y dependent on agriculture. But unfortunatel y, the countr y is not food self- sufficient yet. Which is a major problem for people, who have to import food from abroad, because during the past three decades of civil war and conflict most of the agricultur al dams, canals, and land have also been destro yed, similarl y farmers with experience have immigrated or died. The whole event has entered its negative impact on agriculture sector. And farmers mostl y hav e been suffering from shortage of water, e speciall y in the summer and fall season. This problems is more common in the countr y and more in drought years. The main aim of the Ministr y of Agriculture, Irriga tion and livestock of Afghanistan is self - sufficienc y of food. To achieve self- sufficienc y, it is necessar y to investigate the existing problems especiall y in the irrigation sector and to increase water use efficienc y.

The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most convenient, effective and adoptable water loss control s ystem utilizing irri gation water in Afghanistan. For achieving the above goal, the following researches were conducted ; A) To improve irrigation water use efficienc y, through estimation of pan evaporation in Kabul, Afghanistan. B) To estimate optimum irrigation discharge under furrow irrigation in Afghanistan. C) To discuss mulching s ystem for conserving irrigation water.

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