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Tokyo University of Agriculture (2019)

Study on Soil Surface Treatment for Water Harvesting in Paghman District of Kabul Province, Afghanistan

RAHMANI SHAFIQULLAH

Titre : Study on Soil Surface Treatment for Water Harvesting in Paghman District of Kabul Province, Afghanistan

Auteur : RAHMANI SHAFIQULLAH

Université de soutenance : Tokyo University of Agriculture

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in the Field of Agricultural Engineering, 2019

Descriptif partiel
1. Background and objectives Water is the most essential input for successful agriculture. Afghanistan is often characterized as arid to semi-arid regions. Most water resources are used for agricultural purposes in Afghanistan. Majority of the population lives in rural areas and conduct subsistence farming on small scale farmlands at less than 3 ha. Recently, local farmers in the country have been suffering from serious droughts due to climate change. Drought has reached to an emergency level at 8 provinces among 34 provinces of the country. In semi-arid regions of Afghanistan, crop cultivation needs regular irrigation due to low and unequally divided rainfalls in the growing season from March to October. In the study area of Paghman District, the growing season starts in March and ends in October. Hence, from June to October, Paghman District receives hardly any precipitation. Therefore, irrigation water shortage during the latter half of the growing season is a serious problem causing crop failure and low productivity in the study area, though Karezes (which is a tunnel system used to extract shallow groundwater) and tube wells are the main ways to obtain the irrigation water during the growing season. However recently, the amounts of groundwater discharge including Karezes are scarce, and local farmers are not able to obtain certain amounts of irrigation water in the latter half of the growing season. Therefore, attention has been paid to set up the system for collecting and stocking certain amounts of surface water during the first half of the growing season. Although there are many water collecting methods, such as water harvesting, micro catchment and spate irrigation, being applicable for reducing water shortage problems in semi-arid regions, less attention has been paid to water harvesting in Afghanistan. Many water harvesting inducement techniques, such as compaction, gravel removal, bitumen emulsion, less permeable soil, wax and plastic cover and sodium dispersants have been widely applied. This study is focused on clayey dressing application (covering with less permeable soil) ; due to it is an economical and environmental-friendly strategy.Therefore, this study was conducted to propose proper soil surface treatment for effective water harvesting through estimating surface runoff volume using the rational method and the Chong method and discussing the effectiveness of the clayey dressing application.

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