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Tokyo University of Agriculture (2018)

Erosion Assessment and Soil Conservation Strategy in Degraded Soil Condition of Paktya Province, Afghanistan

DAWLATZAI Abdul Malik

Titre : Erosion Assessment and Soil Conservation Strategy in Degraded Soil Condition of Paktya Province, Afghanistan

Auteur : DAWLATZAI Abdul Malik

Université de soutenance : Tokyo University of Agriculture

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2018

Descriptif partiel
1. Background and objectives Afghanistan remains very poor, and the living standards are among the lowest in the world. Almost 80% of the population depends on agricultural activities and 90% of the population lives in rural areas. Agriculture plays an indispensable role in their livelihoods. Although total arable land is 12%, only 6% is cultivated. The climate of the country is arid and semi-arid with cold and relatively rainy in winter and hot summer. Rainfall is infrequent with very low precipitation around 300 mm yr-1 annually but having high rainfall intensity. Afghanistan is suffering from lack of data, information, particularly soil and water conservation plans. Therefore, soil erosion is one of serious problems throughout the country due to the topography of the landscape, arid and semi-arid climates, barren nature of the land and desertification. However, little attention has been paid to address soil erosion problem in the country, particularly in Paktya Province. Hence, this study was conducted to estimate soil erosion through the application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) on GIS and to discuss the effective conservation practices. As effective conservation practices, crop management and gypsum mineral (CaSO4.2H2O) application in agricultural lands were evaluated to reduce sediment concentration in runoff as well as soil erosion in agricultural lands.
2. Current agricultural conditions and constraints Paktya Province is based on agricultural economic with 61% of the population depending on agricultural activities. About 96% of the population lives in the rural areas. Most of these agriculture-related activities fall within small-scale production systems with only a few farmers being self-sufficient. To identify the current agricultural conditions and constraints, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Dawlatzai Village of Gardez District, Paktya Province. The main problems that Paktya Province is facing are ; soil degradation, deforestation, inadequate of irrigation water, poor extension services and inadequate of agricultural inputs. In addition, based on the survey conducted in the study area, 32% of the farmers responded that soil erosion happens very severely and 50% responded as severely. It means that more than 80% of farmers require proper conservation strategies for holding soil fertility and reducing soil erosion.

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